2020


Ciencia y Educación

Access and equity policies in early childhood education: the case of Chile

Autor: Barco, Blanca; Carrasco Alejandro

Early Childhood Education (ECE) has been an area of interest because of its strong impact on the development of skills and benefits for learning at this age. However, participation in ECE programs is not equally distributed across social groups. It has been observed in different international contexts that there are factors such as availability, accessibility and affordability that hinder access for disadvantaged families. Chile has promoted policies to reduce these factors: greater availability of centers, priority selection in admission and free tuition. Through 56 semi-structured interviews from 7 centers, non-participant observations for six months in one of the centers and one year of fieldwork, we sought to understand access to ECE. The results show that, despite priority access policies, there are decisions on availability, implementation of accessibility and funding-oriented affordability practices that hinder access. This work provides new evidence and discusses the implications of the results for equitable access to ECE for disadvantaged families.

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2020


Ciencia y Educación

Articulación entre la educación media técnica profesional (EMTP) y la educación superior técnico profesional (ESTP): un análisis de regresiones logísticas estereotípicas

Autor: Ovalle, Claudia

The present study aims to determine whether technical media education – EMTP – has an impact on the likelihood of selecting higher technical education programs that require different levels of hard skills (abstract reasoning, quantitative reasoning, inferential and critical thinking) and soft skills (interpersonal relationships, language and communication, creativity). Stereotypical regressions were used to predict the odds of enrolling in technical school at a community college compared to another school. The probability of choosing 1 of 9 schools (Engineering, Tourism, Health, Construction, Information Technology and Telecommunications, Administration, Design, Communications) was calculated. The results of the full model indicate that EMTP students may be more likely to choose programs that require a higher level of hard skills (engineering) than soft skills.

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2020


COMPARE

Uncertain futures in forgotten places: a study on education policies and students’ subjectivities in rural contexts in Chile

Autor: Oyarzún, Juan de Dios

This article is based on research about the relations and tensions between secondary students’ subjectivities and dominant discourses as well as education policies in rural contexts in Chile (a well-known case of neoliberal policies in recent decades). Using a poststructural theoretical perspective, the qualitative study is focused on rural students’ subjectivities, through the analysis of their narratives about their lives, their perceptions on secondary schooling, and their educational/labour perspectives about the future. The findings reveal the tensions between the certainty and uncertainty of a future. Specifically, of an educational and work path by which students seek to continue or diverge from the paths taken by previous generations. Here, education policies fail to offer a real upgrade in their future educational and lived conditions or aspirations. Moreover, rural students respond to the neoliberal discourse in an active attempt to de-subjectivise themselves from historical trajectories of precariousness.

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2020


JOURNAL OF GLOBAL HEALTH

Centre-based care is a significant predictor of lower body mass index in early childhood: Longitudinal evidence from Chile

Autor: Allel, Kasim; Narea, Marigen; Undurraga, Eduardo A.

Background: The prevalence of childhood overweight has increased by approximately 50% in the past three decades, becoming a major public health concern worldwide. In Chile, an upper middle-income country, about 38% of children between two and four years of age are overweight, almost double the average in Latin America and the Caribbean. Various environmental and individual factors, and their interactions, affect childhood weight. Emerging evidence suggests childcare may also matter. Because the public provision of centre-based care is growing, childcare may be a useful policy tool to help prevent childhood overweight.
Methods: Using a nationally representative longitudinal survey of ~ 15 000 children in Chile (2010 and 2012), we estimated whether the type of child care (centre-based or maternal) a child attended at age 24 to 36 months was a significant predictor of the child’s sex-and-age-specific body-mass-index (BMI) at age 36-48 months. We restricted our sample to children in full-time maternal care at baseline (12-24 months of age; n = 1273), but tested the robustness of results with the full sample. We compared children in centre-based care and in maternal care using difference-in-difference estimators and propensity score matching, and adjusted our estimates using child, family, and neighborhood characteristics.
Results: Children attending centre-based care had 0.27 SD lower BMI than children in maternal care at follow-up (P < 0.05). We found suggestive evidence this association may be modulated by the child’s socioeconomic status and by how frequently the child watched television: we found smaller BMI changes for children at the bottom 80% of socioeconomic status (P < 0.05) and also for children who frequently watched television (P < 0.10). Our results were robust to various model specifications.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest centre-based care programs, with adequate regulation and enforcement, may be a useful support to help curb the early childhood overweight epidemic, in addition to known effects in labor supply and child development.

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2020


FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY

Locus of Control, Self-Control, and Gender as Predictors of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children and Adolescents in Northern Chile

Autor: Flores, Jerome; Caqueo-Urizar, Alejandra; Ramirez, Cristian; Arancio, Giaela; Cofre, Juan Pablo

Background: Both the control that people attribute to themselves over a situation (locus of control) and the control they attribute to themselves (self-control) have been proposed as aspects that can have an effect on internalizing problems in young people. There is little evidence of this relationship in the infantile-juvenile population in Latin America.
Objective: To establish whether there is a significant predictive relationship of locus of control and self-control over internalizing and externalizing problems in the infantile-juvenile population, both at a general level and dimension-specific. These include depression, anxiety, social anxiety, somatic complaints, and post-traumatic stress.
Methods: A cross-sectional-correlational study was carried out to establish if there was a possible predictive relationship in 3,664 schoolchildren of both primary (4th–6th grade) and secondary (7th–12th grade) in northern Chile, using the short version of the Nowicki-Strickland scale to measure locus of control, the Tangney scale to measure self-control, and the Child and Adolescent Evaluation System (SENA) to measure the dimensions of internalized problems.
Hypotheses: (1) Greater self-control is associated with lower levels of internalizing and externalizing problems. (2) Higher external locus of control is associated with higher levels of internalizing and externalizing problems. (3) Self-control, locus of control, and gender can together significantly predict each of the internalizing and externalizing problems.
Results: Evidence is found to support the first two hypotheses fully and partially support the third, since gender did not function as a predictor in all models.
Conclusion: The results confirm previous international research in that both locus of control and self-control appear to have a significant influence on internalizing and externalizing problems. Implications for mental health promotion in this population are discussed.

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2020


TERAPIA PSICOLÓGICA

Problemas de regulación emocional y salud mental en adolescentes del norte de Chile

Autor: Caqueo, Alejandra; Mena, Patricio; Flores, Jerome; Narea, Marigen; Irarrázabal, Matías

El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la asociación entre los problemas de regulación emocional e indicadores de salud mental en adolescentes de la ciudad Arica al Norte de Chile, además de describir y comparar los niveles de problemas interiorizados y exteriorizados entre hombres y mujeres. Participaron 2331 estudiantes de 11 a 20 años provenientes de establecimientos educacionales. Para medir los problemas de regulación emocional y los indicadores de salud mental, se utilizó el Sistema de Evaluación de Niños y Adolescentes (SENA). Los resultados muestran que los problemas de regulación emocional poseen efectos grandes y significativos sobre los problemas interiorizados y exteriorizados. Asimismo, se observó que las mujeres presentan mayor sintomatología depresiva, ansiosa, de ansiedad social y problemas de regulación emocional que los hombres. Pareciera ser que los adolescentes que manifiestan problemas para regular sus emociones son más vulnerables a experimentar estados de ánimos disfóricos, preocupaciones recurrentes o comportamientos disruptivos.

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2020


UNIVERSITAS PSYCHOLOGICA

Sources of Acculturation Stress in Childhood and Adolescence. Measuring Instrument Proposal FEAC-IA

Autor: Urzua, Alfonso; Caqueo-Urizar, Alejandra; Flores, Jerome

El estrés por aculturación ha sido asociado fuertemente al surgimiento de problemas en la salud de las personas, principalmente en la salud mental. Pese a su importancia como factor de riesgo, su estudio se ha realizado mayoritariamente en población adulta, siendo menor la investigación realizada al respecto en población infantil y adolescente. En esta investigación, se evalúan las propiedades psicométricas del FEAC-IA, cuestionario destinado a evaluar las fuentes de estrés por aculturación. Se recogieron datos de 401 escolares entre 8 a 18 años (M = 12.4; K = 2.5). Se realizaron análisis de confiabilidad y de los indicadores de bondad de ajuste para la evaluación de modelos de la estructura factorial, mediante análisis de ecuaciones estructurales exploratorias (MEEE) y análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC). El cuestionario presenta buenos indicadores de bondad de ajuste para un modelo trifactorial: añoranza y diferencias con el país de origen, adaptación en la escuela, familia y relación con los pares y experiencias de discriminación (CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.976; RMSEA = 0.052). La escala propuesta puede constituirse en un aporte importante para recoger insumos en población migrante infanto-juvenil sobre las fuentes de estrés, que permitan elaborar planes específicos de intervención.

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2020


IRCL, International Research in Children’s Literature

New Materialist Openings for Children's Literature Studies

Autor: García-González, Macarena; Deszcz-Tryhubczak, Justyna

New materialist and posthuman thinking denote a range of approaches that have in common a focus on materialities as a turn against the persistence of Cartesian dualisms (mind/body, subject/object, nature/culture, for example). In this article, we explore how the feminist new materialism of Donna Haraway, Karen Barad, and Rosi Braidotti, among others, may provide openings to research in our field, especially when considering what is recurrently taken up as one of its central problems: the positioning of the child in a world ruled by adults. We first discuss recent approaches in children’s literature studies that show interest in these theories and then use these to offer a toolbox of terms and notions-from ethico-onto-epistemology to diffraction-that may open possibilities for research in more-than-human environments. A new climate has been shifting epistemological and ontological assumptions across research disciplines since the beginning of the twenty-first century. In the humanities and social sciences, posthumanist and new materialist philosophies are providing paradigms that counter the emphasis on language and discourse characteristic of poststructuralism (Coole and Frost 3). In this article, we explore how a focus on matter provides openings for research in our field, as it forces us to rethink adult-child relationalities-with a blurring of the adult/child binary-and to reimagine critical interpretation with an attention to materialities that exceed the representational paradigm. This move to acknowledge matter interrogates the anthropocentric narrative that has underpinned our view of humans-in-the-world since the Enlightenment, a view that posits humans as makers of the world and the International Research in Children’s Literature 13.1 (2020): 45-60 Edinburgh University Press.

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2020


DISCOURSE-STUDIES IN THE CULTURAL POLITICS OF EDUCATION

Becoming abject: testing the limits and borders of reading mediation

Autor: Veliz, Soledad; Garcia-Gonzalez, Macarena

Reading mediation is a concept used in Latin America and Spain, referring to the nurturing role played by adults in forging relationships between children and books. In this article, we conceptualize reading mediation as a ‘technology of affect’. We propose ‘mediation-as-usual’, a normative becoming of this technology, tasked with producing categories and identities regarding readers. Within this technology, adults are produced as empathetic, caring, and providers of safe spaces for reading. We report on literary encounters at a school in Santiago, Chile, with a ‘challenging’ picturebook. We were involved in the emergence of what we term ‘abject mediation’, a figuration that produces the limits and boundaries of mediation-as-usual, and, we argue, has transformative potential. However, this is an ephemeral figuration, as reterritorialization works to assimilate the border elements, actualizing mediation-as-usual. We discuss how these figurations may help to question normative ways of producing readers.

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2020


Ethnography and Education

Educational policies and professional identities: the case of Chilean special educational needs (SEN) teachers under new regulations for SEN student inclusion in mainstream schools

Autor: Palacios, Rosario; Larrazabal, Sofía; Berwart, Rocío

This article explores the professional identities of SEN teachers as related to new Chilean policies for educational inclusion. It focuses on the way in which professional identities are transformed by the new educational setting for special education. Drawing on ethnographical observation in four schools in Santiago, Chile we describe and analyse the main tensions present in SEN teachers’ everyday experiences building from a dialogue between their stories and their rule constrained practices. By doing so, we show how teachers’ professional identities are the product of a deep negotiation with themselves in which their understanding of inclusion, special educational needs and the new policy are at the heart of their inquiry.

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2020


Teaching and Teacher Education

The centrality of immigrant students within teacher-student interaction networks: A relational approach to educational inclusion

Autor: Ortega, Lorena; Boda, Zsófia; Treviño, Ernesto; Arriagada, Verónica; Gelber, Denisse; Escribano, María del Rosario

The conceptualizations of educational inclusion, previously restricted to securing access to formal education, recently highlight the promotion of equitable social and academic relations as well. This study investigates the inclusion of students with immigrant background within their class’ teacher-student interaction networks, while distinguishing by the initiator and content of interactions. Data from 38 Chilean mathematics teachers/classrooms and 933 seventh graders were collected and analyzed using systematic observation, social network visualization and multilevel models. Results show that the inclusion of students depends significantly on their country of origin. There is also significant variation in teacher-immigrant student interactions across classrooms.

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2020


Infancia y Aprendizaje

The inclusion of girls in Chilean mathematics classrooms: gender bias in teacher-student interaction networks / La inclusión de las niñas en las aulas de matemáticas chilenas: sesgo de género en las redes de interacciones profesor-estudiante

Autor: Ortega, Lorena; Treviño, Ernesto; Gelber, Denisse

In Chile, national and international standardized tests have revealed major differences in mathematics achievement in favor of boys. This study sought to determine whether gender differences exist in classroom interactions and examined the relationship between teachers’ beliefs and their pedagogical practices. Forty 7th grade mathematics lessons taught in Chilean public schools by 20 educators selected via convenience sampling were video-taped. Pedagogical interactions were coded by gender and a self-report questionnaire on beliefs was administered to the teachers. Descriptive analyses were conducted. The Wilcoxon test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for group comparisons. It was observed that teachers ask boys significantly more questions requiring complex cognitive processes and provide more feedback to boys, and also that boys participate significantly more in class than girls. There are no differences between male and female teachers regarding these practices. In addition, preliminary evidence was found of a concordance between beliefs and practices in teachers who reported explicit gender stereotypes associated with mathematics learning.

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2020


Economics of Education Review

School choice and parents’ preferences for school attributes in Chile

Autor: Hofflinger, Alvaro; Gelber, Denisse; Tellez Cañas, Santiago

A key assumption of school choice and competition policies is that parents’ most important (if not only) priority when choosing a school is its quality. However, evidence about which of a school’s attributes really drives parental choice is still scarce. We use census data from a parent questionnaire in Chile, a country with a national school choice and competition system, to describe the attributes most commonly considered by parents when choosing a school, and to assess how the probability of prioritizing those attributes varies with the parents’ socioeconomic characteristics, while controlling for other characteristics of the family. We find that parents choosing a school prioritize its proximity, its quality, and whether it provides religious education. Furthermore, the probability of parents prioritizing proximity is higher for parents of low socioeconomic status, while the probability of them prioritizing quality and religious education is higher for parents of high socioeconomic status. These findings show that only advantaged families choose schools based on their quality, and therefore school choice and competition policies may offer a limited benefit for disadvantaged pupils, possibly maintaining or reinforcing socioeconomic segregation in the education system.

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2020


International Journal of Educational Development

How much does the quality of teaching vary at under-performing schools? Evidence from classroom observations in Chile

Autor: Escribano, Rosario; Treviño, Ernesto; Nussbaum, Miguel; Torres, David; Carrasco, Diego

The present study aims to determine how much the quality of teaching varies among and within under-performing schools. 1266 classroom observations were conducted in 260 schools across Chile. An index of teaching quality was constructed to analyze its variance. It was found that only 4.8% of the variance is explained by the teacher’s school. This suggests that the variance in the quality of teaching is not among schools, but within teachers from the same school. These results are important for public policy, especially in the field of professional development, as they suggest that best practices can be found at under-performing schools.

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2020


BMC Psychiatry

Psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in a middle-income Latin American country

Autor: Caqueo-Urízar, A., Flores, J., Escobar, C. et al.

Results In this student population, depression, anxiety, and behavioral disorders were the main mental health problems identified, and indicators revealed a progressive increase in cases over the years, coinciding with the global epidemiological scenario. Males showed a greater presence of externalizing behaviors related to mental health problems associated with aggression and defiant behavior. However, females showed the highest number of mental health issues overall, especially regarding problems related to internalization. There are significant differences between school types.
Conclusions Our sample population analysis indicates that early intervention is necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of youth, with the goal of reducing the probability that psychiatric disorders will be prolonged, evolving, and worsening in adulthood.

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2020


Early Childhood Research Quarterly

Maternal and non-maternal care in infancy and later child cognitive, language and motor development in Chile: Does type of care matter?

Autor: Narea, Marigen; Toppelberg, Claudio; Irarrázabal, Matías; Xu, Jiali

Growing numbers of children across the world start non-maternal care in the first year of life. However, few studies have described how different infant care experiences may relate to later child cognitive, language and motor functioning, and most analyses have focused on samples from historically industrialized regions. Cognitive, language and motor subscores (TEPSI) and receptive vocabulary scores (TVIP) obtained through direct testing of 24-to-48-month-old children (n = 7564) from the Chilean Longitudinal Survey of Early Childhood were compared based on retrospective reports of care received as infants. Children who, as infants, had received one of four types of non-maternal care — center-based, grandparent, other relative, and non-relative care — were compared to those who had exclusively experienced maternal care (71.8%). Series of regressions with propensity score models (PSM) were performed. Compared to maternal care, children in center-based care and grandparent care had higher total TEPSI scores (d = .19, p < 0.05) (d = .19, p < 0.01) and TEPSI language subscores (d = .20, p < 0.05) (d = .20, p < 0.01), while those in grandparent care also had higher TEPSI motor subscores (d = .08, p < 0.05). In contrast, children in non-relative care had lower TVIP receptive vocabulary scores (d = −.38, p < 0.01). These findings contribute to the debate on national policies supporting specific types of non-maternal care and their impact on child development.

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2019


Journal of School Psychology

Classroom ability composition and the role of academic performance and school misconduct in the formation of academic and friendship networks

Autor: Palacios, Diego; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Villalobos, Cristóbal; Treviño, Ernesto; Berger, Christian; Huisman, Mark; Veenstra, René

This paper examined the association between friendship and academic networks and how the connections these networks have with academic performance and school misconduct differ when comparing three types of classrooms where students were grouped based on their academic ability (i.e., high-, low-, and mixed-ability). The sample was composed of 528 seventh to ninth graders (Mag = 15; 64.1% girls) from 12 classrooms (four in each category of ability grouping) across two waves in five schools in Chile. The effects of academic performance and school misconduct on receiving academic and friendship nominations were examined, as well as the interplay between academic and friendship relationships. Furthermore, the extent to which similarity in adolescents’ academic performance and school misconduct contributed to the formation and maintenance of academic and friendship relationships was examined. Sex, socioeconomic status, and structural network features were also taken into account. Longitudinal social network analyses (RSiena) indicated that (1) in high-ability classrooms students chose high-achieving peers as academic partners; (2) in high-ability classrooms students avoided deviant peers (i.e., those high in school misconduct) as academic partners; and (3) academic relationships led to friendships, and vice versa, in both high- and low-ability classrooms. Whereas the interplay of friendship and academic relationships was similar in high- and low-ability classrooms, the formation and maintenance of academic networks unfolded differently in these two types of classrooms.

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2019


Perspectiva Educacional

FROM WORDS TO ACTION: INCLUSIVE BELIEFS AND PRACTICES IN SCHOOLS AND CLASSROOMS IN SANTIAGO

Autor: Gelber, Denisse; Trevino, Ernesto; Gonzalez, Alonso; Escribano, Rosario; Ortega, Lorena

This research describes the beliefs of school principals, mathematics teachers and special education teachers regarding diversity in students, as well the instructional practices they apply to promote inclusion in public schools in Santiago. We conclude that principals and teachers have five perspectives about inclusion (integration, theoretical, social, practical and pedagogical). Moreover, teachers with a practical /pedagogical perspective tend to: provide more emotional support to their students, incorporate cultural aspects of students in math tasks, promote different strategies for solving math problems, and collaborate more with special education teachers to prepare math lessons.of success.

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2019


Frontiers in Psychology

Executive Functions Can Be Improved in Preschoolers Through Systematic Playing in Educational Settings: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study

Autor: Rosas, Ricardo; Espinoza, Victoria; Porflitt, Felipe; Ceric, Francisco

This study aimed to test the impact of play on the development of executive functions (EFs) in preschoolers. Thirty-two games were designed to be collectively played in groups by 70 children, in their regular classes. The games were specifically designed to promote the development of the three components of EFs: inhibition (behavioral or cognitive), working memory, and cognitive flexibility. The games focused on each function were of three types: playground games, expression games, and classroom games. Sixty 45 min play sessions were held on consecutive days for 3 months, always in the first period. The sessions were guided by two members of the research team, assisted by the four teachers of the participating classes. The intervention was carried out in two highly socially vulnerable schools in the city of Santiago de Chile. Four classes were studied in total: two experimental groups and two controls. The classes were selected using a questionnaire on teacher-student interaction quality and an age homogeneity criterion. EFs were evaluated using the Hearts and Flowers task at three points: before the intervention (T1), immediately after the end of the intervention (T2), and 8 months after the end of the intervention (T3). The results show a significant difference in the growth of EFs by comparing the experimental and control groups (p = 0.04) between T1 and T3. They also reveal a strong correlation between EFs measures at T1 and mathematics performance at T3. These results are discussed within the context of the guidelines proposed by Diamond and Ling (2016) and Barnett (2011) regarding what an EFs promotion program needs to be considered effective and high quality. The program presented in this study meets most of the requisites mentioned by the authors, which proves that following these guidelines guarantees a high probability of success.

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2019


Perspectiva Educacional

Initial differences in development of access to written language according to socioeconomic status

Autor: Espinoza, Victoria; Rosas, Ricardo

El propósito de esta investigación fue analizar las diferencias existentes en el desarrollo inicial de los precursores del lenguaje escrito en niños de distinto nivel socioeconómico (NSE). Se evaluó el desempeño de 81 niños de NSE bajo y 76 niños de NSE alto en precursores de la lectura. Se observaron diferencias significativas, favorables a los estudiantes de NSE alto en todas las habilidades evaluadas, sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias en la magnitud de éstas según el precursor evaluado. Las mayores brechas se pudieron ver en aquellas habilidades relacionadas principalmente con la comprensión y la fluidez lectora, y las brechas de menor magnitud se manifestaron respecto de los precursores relacionados con la decodificación. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de implementar estrategias didácticas que permitan a la escuela compensar estas diferencias de ingreso, considerando los perfiles iniciales de desarrollo de los distintos grupos de estudiantes.of success.

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2019


Pensamiento Educativo. Revista de Investigación Educacional Latinoamericana

Adapting a Technology Tool to Assess Executive Functions in Visually Impaired Children: Does Changing Modality Affect Their Ability to Discriminate?

Autor: Santa Cruz, Catalina

La prueba Gatos y Perros versión auditiva corresponde a una adaptación de la misma prueba que se presenta en modalidad visual para la evaluación de las funciones ejecutivas de niños. La versión auditiva fue creada con el objetivo de evaluar a niños preescolares que presentan discapacidad visual moderada y profunda y, eventualmente, a alumnos con desarrollo típico. Los análisis indican que la nueva prueba no es equivalente a la versión estandarizada. El análisis específico demuestra que la prueba discrimina en todas sus fases el rendimiento entre alumnos con discapacidad visual y desarrollo típico y que esta tendencia se ve reforzada por el mismo resultado obtenido en una tercera prueba (Retención de dígitos). Se propone utilizar la versión auditiva con la población con discapacidad visual y considerar su aplicación en sujetos de mayor edad para evitar el efecto suelo.

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2019


Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Inclusiva

¿Qué Podemos Aprender de los Sistemas Educativos de Chile, España y Finlandia en el Marco de la Declaración de Salamanca?

Autor: Rosas, Ricardo; Staig, James; Lazcano, Guillermo; Palacios, Rosario; Espinoza, Victoria; Aro, Mikko; Imbernón, Candelaria

El presente artículo compara los sistemas de Educación Especial de Chile, España y Finlandia, desde la perspectiva de la Declaración de Salamanca para las Necesidades Educativas Especiales (NEE). Tanto el contexto general de sus sistemas educativos como su orientación epistemológica respecto de la Educación Especial, los marcos regulatorios de cada sistema, los procedimientos de detección y derivación de niños con NEE, y la estructura de los servicios de atención a la diversidad, dialogan de manera particular con los compromisos adquiridos en 1994. Se muestran las principales diferencias entre los sistemas, destacando la gran variabilidad respecto de la definición de NEE y sus estrategias de inclusión de estudiantes de NEE al sistema escolar. Los resultados de esta investigación muestran diferencias importantes en el logro de los objetivos planteados por la declaración, en los tres países estudiados, estando Chile aún muy lejos de contar con un sistema de atención a la diversidad verdaderamente inclusivo. Los desafíos pendientes para nuestro país son que no cuenta con un marco regulatorio integrado para la atención a la diversidad; cuenta con provisión de recursos humanos y tecnológicos muy limitados para estudiantes con NEE, y tiene una insuficiente cobertura de las NEE en la formación inicial docente.

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2019


Pedagogy, Culture & Society

Think difference differently? Knowing/becoming/doing with picturebooks

Autores: García-González, Macarena; Véliz, Soledad; Matus, Claudia

In this article, we explore ways in which arts-based approaches may be deployed to educate ways of knowing/becoming/doing difference differently, particularly when issues of racism and xenophobia come to the front. We present a school research intervention with students and in-service teachers in Santiago, Chile. In this study, we use The Island, a picturebook that produces a narrative of exclusion and fear, instead of promoting tolerance and conviviality. From a new materialist approach, we show engagements or makings of children and adults, sketching out how they defy simplistic ways of thinking and feeling about normative difference. We frame this study as a diffractive research-intervention in which the intertwined and productive relation ‘books and readers’ allow us to problematize rather than simplify what knowing/becoming/doing with arts may do to the production of difference within school contexts.

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2019


Magis

Difference and normality: Ethnographic production and intervention in schools

Autor: Matus, Claudia; Guerrero-Morales P.; Rojas-Lasch C.; Herraz-Mardones P.C.; Sanyal-Tudela A.

En este artículo se presenta un circuito de indagación etnográfica y de intervención producido en una investigación entre 2013 y 2015 en cinco escuelas en Santiago de Chile, cuyo propósito fue documentar la producción de la normalidad y la diferencia en espacios escolares. Los marcos teóricos y metodológicos contestan la pregunta de cómo se hace etnografía e intervención cuando la pregunta de investigación se sitúa desde la producción de la normalidad. Los resultados muestran cómo los procesos culturales y sociales neutralizados son un espacio productivo para la reflexión necesaria para transformar las prácticas docentes.

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2019


Athenea Digital

Subjetivaciones Farmacológicas: Déficit Atencional, Psicoestimulantes y Prácticas Escolares en Dos Colegios de Santiago, Chile

Autor: Rojas Navarro, Sebastián

Este artículo propone un abordaje semiótico-material para pensar con el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención/Hiperactividad (TDAH) y el uso de psicoestimulantes. A partir de una etnografía de las prácticas acontecidas en dos colegios de Santiago, sostenemos que una aproximación prágmatica, relacional y posthumanista abre al análisis otros procesos y dinámicas respecto a como niños y niñas diagnósticadas, medicamentos, compañeras, profesores y otros actores humanos y no-humanos interactuan y se co-afectan, enactando versiones singulares del diagnóstico y de los efectos de la medicación. Así, proponemos resituar la discusión para evitar binarismos que han coactado la reflexión respecto a cómo niños y niñas afectan y son afectados por los saberes biomédicos y las prácticas “psi”. Particularmente, cuestionamos que subjetividad y psicofármacos son esencialmente agentes antagónicos, ya que en la práctica ambos co-existen, se co-afectan, y pueden producir elementos creativos y emergentes, tal como nuestro análisis de las notas de campo y relatos etnográficos revela.

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2019


Springer

Ethnography and Education Policy: A Critical Analysis of Normalcy and Difference in Schools

Autor: Matus, Claudia

This book addresses the relationship between the production of social problems in educational policy, the research practices required to inform policy, and the daily production of normalcies and differences in school contexts. It reports on the opportunities and consequences for policy, research, and practice when normalcy is stigmatized at the same level as difference. The book employs a critical analysis combining queer, feminist, and post-representational theories to understand the implications of dominant ways of understanding the division between normal and different subjectivities and how they reiterate structures of inequality in schools.

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2019


Universitas psychologica

Fuentes de estrés por aculturación en la infancia y adolescencia. Propuesta del instrumento de medición FEAC-IA

Autores: Urzúa, A., Caqueo Urízar, A., Flores Jara, J

El estrés por aculturación ha sido asociado fuertemente al surgimiento de problemas en la salud de las personas, principalmente en la salud mental. Pese a su importancia como factor de riesgo, su estudio se ha realizado mayoritariamente en población adulta, siendo menor la investigación realizada al respecto en población infantil y adolescente. En esta investigación, se evalúan las propiedades psicométricas del FEAC-IA, cuestionario destinado a evaluar las fuentes de estrés por aculturación. Se recogieron datos de 401 escolares entre 8 a 18 años (M = 12.4; K = 2.5). Se realizaron análisis de confiabilidad y de los indicadores de bondad de ajuste para la evaluación de modelos de la estructura factorial, mediante análisis de ecuaciones estructurales exploratorias (MEEE) y análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC). El cuestionario presenta buenos indicadores de bondad de ajuste para un modelo trifactorial: añoranza y diferencias con el país de origen, adaptación en la escuela, familia y relación con los pares y experiencias de discriminación (CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.976; RMSEA = 0.052). La escala propuesta puede constituirse en un aporte importante para recoger insumos en población migrante infanto-juvenil sobre las fuentes de estrés, que permitan elaborar planes específicos de intervención.

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2019


LÍMITE Revista Interdisciplinaria De Filosofía Y Psicología

Validación de la escala de involucramiento religioso universal age i-e 12 en escolares entre 8 y 19 años del norte de Chile

Autores: Flores, Jerome; Caqueo, Alejandra; Hernández, P; Vargas, F

La escala Age Universal ha sido ampliamente utilizada como parte de las versiones derivadas de la escala original de involucramiento religioso de Allport y Ros (1967) en población adolescente y adulta. No obstante, no ha sido validada exhaustivamente y en Latinoamérica no cuenta con ningún tipo de validación en población infanto-juvenil. Es relevante contar con una escala que permita medir este constructo en población infanto-juvenil dada la evidencia favorable de involucramiento religiosos sobre variables de salud mental y bienestar en esta población. Objetivo: validar la escala Age-Universal I-E 12 en población infanto-juvenil en Chile. Método: Se realiza un estudio trasversal para para comprobar las propiedades psicométricas de la escala en escolares entre 8 y 19 años del norte de Chile. Se utiliza una muestra de 3857 estudiantes de ambos sexos, que incluye colegios de diferente dependencia. Los datos se analizan mediante ESEM y CFA. Resultados: A diferencia de la dimensionalidad frecuentemente encontrada en universitarios, de tres factores, en el presente estudio se obtiene una estructura bifactorial donde se combina la dimensión intrínseca con la extrínseca personal. Los indicadores de bondad de ajuste son adecuados (RMSEA = ,062; CFI = .987; TLI = .984). La fiabilidad de la escala total es .91, en tanto que su dimensión intrínseca combinada es de .91 y su dimensión extrínseca social es de .81. siendo adecuada. Conclusión: La escala cuenta con propiedades psicométricas adecuadas para ser utilizada en Chile y probablemente en Latinoamérica.

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2019


TERAPIA PSICOLÓGICA 2019

Discriminación percibida en escolares migrantes en el Norte de Chile

Autores: Caqueo, Alejandra; Flores, Jerome; Irarrázabal, Matías; Loo, Ninoska; Páez, Jacqueline; Sepúlveda, Geraldy

La migración en Chile ha trascendido enormemente, siendo la educación uno de los principales focos de atención en miras de la transformación. El objetivo de este estudio es describir la discriminación percibida por escolares migrantes de la ciudad de Arica al Norte de Chile, analizando además la relación entre esta última y el estrés por aculturación. Participaron 678 estudiantes de ambos sexos entre Cuarto Básico a Cuarto Medio, entre los 8 y 19 años. Se utilizó la Escala de Discriminación en la Vida Cotidiana (EDS) y la Escala de fuentes de estrés por aculturación (FEAC). Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la discriminación percibida entre escolares migrantes y no migrantes con una puntuación más alta en los migrantes en todas las edades. Se observa también una relación significativa entre discriminación percibida y estrés por aculturación. Se discuten los resultados y sus implicaciones, para el mejoramiento políticas públicas en el ámbito escolar.

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2019


EARLY EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT

Center-Based Care in Toddlerhood and Child Cognitive Outcomes in Chile: The Moderating Role of Family Socio-Economic Status

Autor: Narea, Marigen; Allel, Kasim; Arriagada, Veronica

There is little evidence regarding the benefits of early center-based care attendance (before three years old) for child development and most studies have focused on developed countries. Addressing this gap, this study examines the relationship between center-based care attendance during toddler years and children’s cognitive outcomes. Research Findings: Data used for this study came from the first and second wave of the Longitudinal Survey of Early Childhood (ELPI, 2010 and 2012). The nationally representative sample was 1,544 children aged 12 to 24 months in 2010, who received full-time home care during this period. Propensity score matching (PSM) and difference-in-differences techniques were used in the study. Compared to those in full-time home care, children who attended center-based care from the age of 24 months had higher cognitive scores in the endline (they were measured at some point between 36 and 48 months old). Children in center-based care scored higher on cognitive skills compared to children who were in full-time home care, according to the Child Development and Cognitive Evaluation Test (Test de Aprendizaje y Desarrollo Infantil, TADI) and the Battelle test (d = .21 p < .01 and d = .22 p < .01, respectively). However, we observed that children in low-income households benefited less from early center-based care attendance. Practice or Policy: These findings suggest that Chilean national policies supporting increased center-based care coverage in early years are a step in the right direction, but more work focused on helping disadvantaged children is needed.

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2019


STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING

Household Determinants of Teen Marriage: Sister Effects Across Four Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Autores: Maria Pesando, Luca; Abuthele, Alejandra

This article investigates the household determinants of teen marriage in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam using data from the international Young Lives study tracking a cohort of children from the ages of 8–19 over a 15-year period. First, we offer a descriptive and comparative overviewof the prevalence of teen marriage among girls in geographically selected areas of the four countries, together with their sociodemographic determinants. Second, we place a specific focus on the role of gender and sibling sex-composition in shaping the probability of getting married by age 19. Drawing on the significant cross country heterogeneity in household context, direction of marriage payments, and prevalence of arranged marriage, we test hypotheses relating to the availability of economic resources within the household and cultural norms surrounding the order and timing of marriage. We show that in Ethiopia, India, and Vietnam, presence and number of older sisters in the household are associated with a 30–50 percent lower likelihood of teen marriage, while the association is null in Peru. Also, we show that having a girl as next-youngest sibling does not significantly affect girls’ likelihood of experiencing teen marriage, except in Ethiopia. Our results combined support theories of family-level resource constraints over sibling rivalry hypotheses. Our findings enrich and complement existing evidence on the role of sibling sex-composition on adolescent outcomes in low- and middle-income countries.

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2019


Educational Review

The private in the privatisation of schools: the case of Chile

Autores: Carrasco, Alejandro; Gunter, HM.

Privatisation of public services education is a key feature of the Global Education Reform Movement (GERM), where policy convictions, ideas, and strategies are integral to the “spreading and mutating” of reforms. While there are important projects that seek to describe and explain major changes to restructuring, ownership and funding, what has not been given sufficient attention is the role of the private in privatisation. By private, we mean the decisions and choices regarding educational services of (a) individuals and families and (b) school providers, and how issues that have traditionally been in the public domain (e.g. through government systems, on the agendas of local community/municipal schools) are no longer there (e.g. government systems have been dismantled and replaced with new providers, and local community/municipal schools either no longer exist or provide “safety nets” for those who fail in the market). What we intend focusing on is depoliticised privatism, where the role of the private in the supply and demand for school places illuminates a shift in the identification and addressing of educational matters from the politicised public to the depoliticised private domain. We report specifically on intellectual and empirical work regarding how supply and demand works in the provision of education services in Chile, particularly by looking at how those who own and work in schools view current reforms.

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2019


EPAA/AAPE

La investigación en educación superior en Chile: Una perspectiva sobre patrones de publicación y temas emergentes

Autor: Muñoz-García, Ana Luisa; Queupil, Juan Pablo; Bernasconi, Andrés; Véliz, Daniela

In the context of a recent increase in the Chilean production of knowledge within the field of higher education, this article reveals some trends exhibited by this production, as well as the main research topics. With this aim, we examine the number and institutional affiliations of research grants in the area, provide a bibliometric analysis of Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus publications, and present a content analysis of works indexed in WoS and Scopus published from 2005 to 2015. Results show a clear growth pattern, both in research grants and articles published. Research capacities in the field appear to be distributed across several universities in Chile, and to involve scholars based not only in schools of education, but also those in several other academic units in diverse disciplinary and professional domains. Themes emerging from the content analysis can be grouped in four main research lines: curriculum, teaching and learning; trajectories and experiences of students; the academic profession; and higher education policy.

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2019


SOPHIA

Preparación para la Universidad: Un modelo conceptual de las habilidades, conocimientos y comportamientos que se deben adquirir en la Educación Secundaria

Autor: Ovalle, Claudia

La preparación para la universidad (College and Career Readiness ó CCR) es un modelo educativo que determina las habilidades, comportamientos y los conocimientos que los estudiantes bachilleres requieren para poder tener éxito en el nivel educativo superior o en el trabajo. En Colombia hay pocos estudios relacionados con preparación para la Universidad por lo que este artículo pretende presentar el modelo conceptual, la investigación reciente en el campo y temas para una agenda de investigación que incorpore datos de muestras de estudiantes colombianos

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2019


Mendive

Las notas de la Enseñanza Media como predictor del desempeño estudiantil en la Educación Superior Técnico Profesional

Autor: Ovalle, Claudia

En el contexto actual donde se busca establecer mecanismos de admisión y selección a la educación superior en Chile se ha propuesto que las medidas de tipo académico puedan servir el propósito de seleccionar estudiantes para los estudios técnicos superiores. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar si las notas de la Enseñanza Media (NEM) están relacionadas con el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes en el primer año de Educación Superior Técnica. Se emplearon correlaciones bivariadas y modelos de regresión por mínimos cuadrados (OLS) controlando por variables del individuo y de la escuela para establecer el impacto de las NEM en los resultados de las asignaturas del primer año de Educación Superior Técnica. Se usaron los datos de estudiantes de una institución profesional (IP) de educación técnica superior de Chile con una matrícula de aproximadamente 101.000 estudiantes, la cual es una de las mayores proveedoras de este tipo de formación en Chile. La muestra incluyó estudiantes que se matricularon en el año 2018. Los resultados mostraron que las NEM son una variable que tiene una alta correlación con notas de educación superior técnica y los modelos de regresión confirman una relación positiva y significativa. Sin embargo, la magnitud de los coeficientes puede ser indicativa de que las NEM no son un predictor fuerte del desempeño futuro en todas las carreras técnicas.

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2019


Revista electronica de didactica en educacion superior

Índices de segregación y aislamiento: una aplicación para la gestión de instituciones técnico profesionales

Autor: Ovalle, Claudia

El artículo presenta índices que permiten identificar la composición del cuerpo estudiantil  y que son útiles para visibilizar características socio demográficas de interés dentro de los programas técnicos de formación superior. Estos indicadores señalan si hay concentración de estudiantes con ciertas características (estudiantes de sexo femenino, estudiantes de bajos ingresos, estudiantes en condición de discapacidad, estudiantes migrantes, etc.) y la probabilidad de que los estudiantes estén en contacto con pares cuyas características son similares. Teniendo en cuenta estos indicadores los IPs (Institutos Profesionales) y los CFTs (Centros de Formación Técnica) pueden formular estrategias para focalizar estas minorías e intervenir para mejorar el rendimiento y la retención estudiantil en la educación superior técnica en Chile y en Latinoamérica. Este trabajo/artículo/investigación fue financiado por CONICYT-PIA-CIE160007.

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2018


Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis

Teacher effects on Chilean children’s achievement growth: A cross-classified multiple membership accelerated growth curve model

Autores: Ortega, Lorena; Malmberg, Lars; Sammons, Pam

We investigated teacher effects (magnitude, predictors, and cumulativeness) on primary students’ achievement trajectories in Chile, using multilevel cross-classified (accelerated) growth models (four overlapping cohorts, spanning Grades 3 to 8; n = 19,704 students, and 851 language and 812 mathematics teachers, in 156 schools). It was found that teacher effects on achievement growth are large, exceeding school effects. Also, the contribution of teachers to student achievement growth was found to accumulate over time. The study advances the field by exploring teacher effects in the context of an emerging economy, contributing further evidence on the properties of teacher effects on student achievement growth and demonstrating the combined use of accelerated longitudinal designs, growth curve approaches, and cross-classified and multiple membership models.

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2018


RMIE

Teacher effects on Chilean children’s achievement growth: A cross-classified multiple membership accelerated growth curve model

Autores: Treviño, Ernesto; Valenzuela, Juan P.; Villalobos, Cristóbal; Béjares, Consuelo; Wyman, Ignacio; Allende, Claudio

El objetivo de este artículo es describir la magnitud, los niveles de recurrencia y las características de las prácticas de segregación o agrupamiento por habilidad que ocurren en el sistema escolar chileno. Mediante análisis cuantitativos, se identificaron tres tipos de agrupamiento: a) al inicio del ciclo escolar, b) el reordenamiento de estudiantes y c) la distribución no aleatoria de alumnos nuevos. Los resultados sugieren que el agrupamiento por habilidad es más frecuente durante los últimos años de la educación obligatoria, especialmente en el primer y tercer grados de enseñanza media o secundaria alta. Asimismo, el agrupamiento por habilidad es más frecuente entre escuelas más vulnerables y de mayor tamaño.

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2018


School Effectiveness and School Improvement

School effects on Chilean children’s achievement growth in language and mathematics: An accelerated growth curve model

Autores: Ortega, Lorena; Malmberg, Lars; Sammons, Pam

This study investigates school effects on primary school students’ language and mathematics achievement trajectories in Chile, a context of particular interest given its large between-school variability in educational outcomes. The sample features an accelerated longitudinal design (3 time points, 4 cohorts) together spanning Grades 3 to 8 (n = 19,704 students in 156 schools). The magnitudes of school effects on students’ growth trajectories were found to be sizeable (generally larger than school effects in Western industrialised countries) and moderately consistent across school subjects. School composition effects on student achievement status were found for both school subjects. However, there was no evidence of composition effects on student achievement growth. The study provides new evidence on the size and nature of school effects in a developing country context based on state-of-the-art methods (i.e., accelerated longitudinal and growth curve models).

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2018


YOUNG

Forms of youth political participation and educational system: The role of school for 8th grade students in Chile

Autores: Treviño, Ernesto; Villalobos, Cristóbal; Béjares, Consuelo; Naranjo, Eloísa

This article analyses the role of school in different forms of expected political participation of 8th grade students in Chile. The massive students’ public demonstrations in Chile in the last ten years and the low rate of young voters’ turnout in elections have raised the question about young people’s preparation to participate as citizens in society. The results show that students’ civic and political background has the greatest influence in political participation, while the influence of school is mainly related to school governance and teacher practices. This discussion focused on the challenges that these results could mean for schools in Chile.

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2018


Psicología, Conocimiento y Sociedad

New subjectivities: a posthumanist and neo-materialist approach to the processes of encounter between children and psychostimulant medication

Autores: Sebastián Rojas Navarro

Este artículo propone un abordaje complejo y posthumanista a los diversos modos mediante los cuales niñas, niños y psicofármacos se co-afectan, determinando diversos devenires ontológicos a partir de esta interacción, en el nicho provisto por dos escuelas ubicadas en la zona oriente de Santiago de Chile. A partir de los resultados de una praxiografía que se extendió por ocho meses con niñas y niños de 9 y 10 años, se sostiene que es necesario pensar esta relación entre niñas, niños y psicofármacos desde coordenadas distintas a las provistas por las tesis de la medicalización. Esto, en tanto ellas reducen y achatan la noción de subjetividad a una posesión interna del individuo, y a una separación radical con el mundo, sostenida en una discutible idea de excepcionalismo humano. En respuesta a esta idea de subjetividad, se propone otra que permite un abordaje diferente al problema, en tanto es una subjetividad entendida en sus aspectos procesales, dinámicos, y últimamente sostenido en base a entramados con el mundo y con la medicación.

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2018


Children’s Literature in Education

Post-representational Cultural Memory for Children in Chile: From La Composición to Bear Story

Autores: García-González, Macarena

This article analyses texts intended for child audiences—picturebooks, a poetry book, and a film—that deal with the Chilean dictatorship (1973–1990). The memorialization practices within children’s media appear to be modelled on the difficulties of finding a national consensus regarding the events that transpired during the dictatorship and the appropriate ways of rendering them for children. Lydia Kokkola’s work on the Holocaust as a motif shows that gaps of information are left to be picked up by the adult reading alongside the child. Children’s literature that refers to state violence is described as elusive or circumventive. This article approaches these texts as complex materialities, suspending the paradigm of representation and interpretation. Inspired by Ulrich Gumbrecht’s call for a post-hermeneutic literary theory and by new materialistic approaches to the humanities and education, it is argued that these texts are more profitably read and experienced as artworks that escape pedagogic domestication. Accordingly, this article examines these selected texts as pieces that may smuggle meanings and intensities into educational settings if their complexity is not reduced by mediation practices.

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2018


Discourse Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education

Autonomy and the Ambiguity of Biological Rationalities: from Kant to Systems Theory to ADHD

Autores: Haye, Andrés; Matus, Claudia; Cottet, Pablo; Niño, Sebastián

We present a theoretical review of notions of autonomy to show how they organize discourses within social sciences around the biological reality of ideal self-regulating individuals. First, we reconstruct key meanings of autonomy in biological theory, focusing on theories of autopoietic systems and their connections to constructivist epistemologies in the social sciences. Second, we discuss developmental and neuropsychological theories of self-regulation, demonstrating conceptual links with biological and systems theory. Third, we discuss the implications for education, using the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as an example on how the construction of the biological, as the natural foundation of individuality, is intensified by the ideal integration of individuals as self-regulated agents. We argue that autonomy, theoretically rooted in modern philosophy, and expanded through system theory to biological and social sciences, has become a biopolitical project contributing to contemporary biological rationalities that produce the educated subject.

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2018


Revista de Crítica Literaria Latinoamericana

Narrating Dictatorship for Childhood. Images that Smuggle Meanings.

Autores: García-González, Macarena

Los medios para la infancia presentan un campo privilegiado para explorar la reproducción de consensos e imaginarios sociales. En este artículo, nos aproximamos a cuatro obras recomendadas por la crítica especializada: los libro-álbumes La composición, Camino a casa y Un diamante en el fondo de la tierra y el cortometraje “Bear Story”. En estos textos, lo verbal y lo visual se imbrican para hacer referencias a la violencia política en Latinoamérica. Asistida por teorías de semiótica visual —y por la categoría de modalidad de la imagen introducida por Gunther Kress y Theo van Leeuwen— analizo cómo estos textos narran la dictadura reproduciendo así límites de una memoria colectiva sobre el pasado que elude la narración de la violencia. El análisis ideológico de estos textos es complementado con algunas reflexiones elaboradas sobre respuestas lectoras de profesores de educación básica así como de niños y niñas obtenidas en talleres de lectura realizados en Santiago de Chile.

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2018


Educational Review

The private in the privatisation of schools: the case of Chile

Autores: Carrasco, Alejandro; Gunter, HM.

Privatisation of public services education is a key feature of the Global Education Reform Movement (GERM), where policy convictions, ideas, and strategies are integral to the “spreading and mutating” of reforms. While there are important projects that seek to describe and explain major changes to restructuring, ownership and funding, what has not been given sufficient attention is the role of the private in privatisation. By private, we mean the decisions and choices regarding educational services of (a) individuals and families and (b) school providers, and how issues that have traditionally been in the public domain (e.g. through government systems, on the agendas of local community/municipal schools) are no longer there (e.g. government systems have been dismantled and replaced with new providers, and local community/municipal schools either no longer exist or provide “safety nets” for those who fail in the market). What we intend focusing on is depoliticised privatism, where the role of the private in the supply and demand for school places illuminates a shift in the identification and addressing of educational matters from the politicised public to the depoliticised private domain. We report specifically on intellectual and empirical work regarding how supply and demand works in the provision of education services in Chile, particularly by looking at how those who own and work in schools view current reforms.

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2018


Revista Venezolana de Gerencia

Liderazgo, cultura académica y calidad de las universidades: aproximación conceptual y relaciones

Autores: Pedraja-Rejas, Liliana; Araneda-Guirriman, Carmen; Bernasconi, Andrés; Viancos, Patricio

La calidad de la educación superior es un determinante en las oportunidades de desarrollo de las naciones en la sociedad del conocimiento. Por lo tanto, resulta vital avanzar en descubrir cuáles factores pueden incidir en la calidad de las entidades de este sector, y de esta forma contribuir al mejoramiento de ellas y al progreso de los países. Este trabajo se ha planteado como propósito central analizar las teorías sobre estilos de liderazgo, cultura académica y calidad institucional de las universidades, con el fin de estructurar un modelo integrador para el liderazgo universitario. Para alcanzar esta finalidad se recurre a fuentes secundarias (principalmente artículos en revistas indexadas) cuyo análisis e integración posibilita la construcción de una teoría de rango medio o modelo explicativo que relacione estas dimensiones. Como resultado de la investigación, se estructura un modelo de liderazgo universitario en el que se precisan relaciones entre estilos de liderazgo, cultura académica y calidad institucional. Se evidencia un probable vínculo entre los estilos de liderazgo y los tipos de cultura que prevalecen en las instituciones de educación superior, encontrando a partir de la metodología empleada, una asociación de naturaleza teórica no observada en la revisión conceptual llevada a cabo.

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2018


The Urban Review

White Middle‐Class Families and Sociocultural Diversity in Schools: A Literature Review.

Autores: Hernández, Macarena

School choice parental practices have been extensively researched worldwide. Recently, an emergent line of studies has focused on the case of mostly white middle-class parents, who, in contrast to the dominant trend identified by sociological research, choose or are willing to choose a socially, racially and/or ethnically diverse school for their children. The purpose of this article is to review the literature published between 2000 and 2017 on this nascent field, exploring the characteristics of families’ ‘against the grain’ choice processes, the parental practices deployed for managing school diversity, and their consequences for intra-school integration. Results highlight (a) the tensions underlying parental choices for diversity, (b) the multiple individual and collective practices that families implement to confront sociocultural school mix, and (c) the implications for the emergence of social and racial/ethnic intra-school segregation and power dynamics within communities. Based on the findings presented, the article discusses suggestions for further research.

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