2022


How did the pandemic affect the socio-emotional well-being of Chilean schoolchildren? A longitudinal study.

How did the pandemic affect the socio-emotional well-being of Chilean schoolchildren? A longitudinal study.

Autoras/es: Santa-Cruz, C., Espinoza, V., Donoso, J., Rosas, R., & Badillo, D.

This study investigated the repercussions of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the subsequent quarantine on the emotional well-being of children in their initial years of formal schooling, with particular emphasis on children with special educational needs (SEN) and children from high and low socioeconomic statuses (SES). This longitudinal study employed the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6–18 (CBCL) completed by the students’ guardians at least once during 2018–2019 and again during 2020. The results showed differences in internalizing and externalizing problems after 8 months of quarantine and a significant increase in students fitting clinical or borderline categories given by the CBCL itself. The results are described in detail for four groups considering the combination of SEN and SES characteristics, showing the importance of their intersectionality, especially between low SES and SEN. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

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    2022


    Propiedades Psicométricas de las Versiones de Autoinforme del Sistema de Evaluación de Niños y Adolescentes (SENA) en Una Muestra de Chile

    Propiedades Psicométricas de las Versiones de Autoinforme del Sistema de Evaluación de Niños y Adolescentes (SENA) en Una Muestra de Chile

    Autoras/es: Jerome Flores, Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar y Cristián Ramírez.

    Es necesario contar con instrumentos adecuados que midan salud mental en población infanto-juvenil. El objetivo es obtener la fiabilidad y estructura factorial de las versiones de autoinforme del Sistema de evaluación de niños y adolescentes (SENA) de 8-12 y 12-18 años en una muestra de niños, niñas y adolescentes chilena. La primera estuvo compuesta por 1921 estudiantes y la segunda por 3077. Un 49.4% fueron mujeres y un 50.6% hombres. La fiabilidad de cada una de las escalas fue adecuada. En la mayoría de las escalas fue .75 o más, en ambas versiones. La estructura factorial, considerando 14 de las escalas de primaria y 20 de las de secundaria, obtuvo suficiente bondad de ajuste en ambas muestras (χ²/gl<5, RMSEA<.05, SRMR<.08). Las escalas de recursos personales se dejaron fuera de los modelos. Ambas versiones del SENA autoinforme consideradas en el presente estudio cuentan con propiedades psicométricas aceptables.

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      2022


      Tensiones en la escuela: educación para las niñas bajola impronta neoliberal

      Tensiones en la escuela: educación para las niñas bajola impronta neoliberal

      Autoras/es: Luna Follegati; Claudia Matus y Valentina Errázuriz.

      Problematizar la producción del género «y específicamente de lo femenino en el contexto escolar» es particularmente complejo. De un tiempo a esta parte, han sido las propias estudiantes quiénes han señalado la disconformidad con un sistema educativo que persiste en implementar acciones tanto institucionales como cotidianas que plasman y producen diferencias sexistas de forma significativa. La escuela se ha transformando así en un espacio de disputa y territorio en conflicto, donde conviven nuevas perspectivas de niñas y jóvenes en relación a las exigencias de derechos, de hacer escuchar su voz y manifestación pública de disconformidad, en el contexto actual de movilizaciones que cuestionan el neoliberalismo imperante. A partir del marco y contexto anterior, se analizarán las etnografías realizadas en dos establecimientos educativos, durante 2014-2018. En ellas es posible identificar dos ejes argumentativos relevantes que dan cuenta de la producción de mujeres como sujetos de segunda categoría, acentuando el análisis en el cruce entre las formas de economización de la vida en clave neoliberal, y las implicancias de esto desde una perspectiva de género.

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        2022


        Integration, Social Competence and Life Satisfaction: the Mediating Effect of Resilience and Self-Esteem in Adolescents

        Integration, Social Competence and Life Satisfaction: the Mediating Effect of Resilience and Self-Esteem in Adolescents

        Autoras/es: Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar, Diego Atencio, Alfonso Urzúa & Jerome Flores.

        The association between life satisfaction, resilience, self-esteem, and social competence has been scarcely studied in developing countries, despite the existing literature regarding its effects on youth mental health. This study aimed to analyze the mediating role of self-esteem and resilience in the relationship between social competence and life satisfaction in adolescents from northern Chile. The sample consisted of 2277 students aged 12–18 years. Self-report scales were used to measure levels of self-esteem and social competence (System of Evaluation of Children and Adolescents; Sistema de Evaluación de Niños y Adolescentes, SENA), resilience (Child and Youth Resilience Measure, CYRM-12), and life satisfaction (Satisfaction with Life Scale-Child, SWLS-C). The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The results show that self-esteem and resilience have a direct effect on life satisfaction, while resilience acts as a mediating variable in the relationship between self-esteem and life satisfaction. Social competence has a direct effect on self-esteem, and an indirect effect on life satisfaction. These results suggest that interventions on social competence contribute to enhancing self-esteem and life satisfaction, and that self-esteem and resilience levels are a source of information for the design of intervention programs with the aim of increasing child and youth satisfaction.

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          2022


          Ethics in neoliberalism? Parental responsibility and education policy in Chile and Australia

          Ethics in neoliberalism? Parental responsibility and education policy in Chile and Australia

          Autoras/es: Juan de Dios OyarzúnJessica Gerrard y Glenn C. Savage.

          This article questions the diverse and, in some cases, contradictory ethical forms present in contemporary neoliberal policy frames. In particular, we analyse the demands of responsibility – as a form of ethical commitment – requested of parents by education policies in the contexts of Chile and Australia. Assuming neoliberalism as a contextualised and multivocal form of governing, we applied a policy sociology approach to study the ethical implications for parents of two recent educational reforms developed in the national contexts of this research. Our analyses show that the emerging demands on parents for responsibility in the educational field exceed univocal forms of individual responsibilisation, encompassing expressions of responsibility that respond to collective and public goals.

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            2022


            Self-segregation strategies through school choice in Chile: A middle-class domain?

            Self-segregation strategies through school choice in Chile: A middle-class domain?

            Autoras/es: Alejandro CarrascoManuela Mendoza y Carolina Flores.

            Sociological research has shown that marketized educational systems favour middle-class families’ self-segregation strategies through school choice and, consequently, the reproduction of their social advantage over poorer families. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of capitals, habitus and strategy, we analyse quantitative and ethnographic data on parents’ school choice from Chile to introduce nuances to this argument, evincing more extended and complex mechanisms of self-segregation in the Chilean marketized educational system. We found that not only middle-class parents but also parents from different socioeconomic groups displayed self-segregating school choice strategies. We also found that these strategies were performed both vertically (in relation to other social classes) and horizontally (in relation to other groups within the same social class). These findings unwrap a possible stronger effect of the Chilean school choice system over segregation.

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              2022


              The Mediating Role of Contextual Problems and Sensation Seeking in the Association between Substance Use and Mental Health in Adolescents from Northern Chile

              The Mediating Role of Contextual Problems and Sensation Seeking in the Association between Substance Use and Mental Health in Adolescents from Northern Chile

              Autoras/es:

              Substance use is a risk behavior that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between behavioral problems, emotional problems, and substance use as well as the mediating role of contextual problems and sensation seeking in this relation. A cross-sectional study of 2277 adolescents from Northern Chile was conducted. The System for the Evaluation of Children and Adolescents (SENA) was used to assess substance use, contextual problems, sensation seeking, and emotional and behavioral problems. Through a mediational model, it was observed that substance use has a positive indirect effect on emotional and behavioral problems when both contextual problems and sensation seeking act as mediating variables. An indirect effect of substance use on contextual problems with sensation seeking as a mediator was also observed. The results suggests that context and sensation seeking are a relevant source of information in understanding adolescents and their propensity to use drugs. Interventions based on addressing contextual problems (problems with school, peers, and family) and enhancing personal resources should be implemented in order to reduce substance use in adolescents as well as the consequences it can generate in the short, medium, and long term

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                2022


                Religion Involvement and Substance Use Problems in Schoolchildren in Northern Chile

                Religion Involvement and Substance Use Problems in Schoolchildren in Northern Chile

                Autoras/es: Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar, Erika Peroza, Carolang Escobar-Soler, Jerome Flores, Alfonso Urzúa, Matías Irarrázaval, Karina Reygadas y Gustavo Zegarra.

                Background: Religious involvement and spirituality have proven to be sources of well-being for individuals at different moments in life and are also associated with a decrease in depression, anxiety, and substance use. Therefore, these could be protective factors against stressful conditions and contribute to mental health. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between religious involvement and substance use among students in northern Chile. (2) Methods: The design is retrospective ex post facto with only one group, and the sample included 2313 adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age from public and private schools. A subscale of the Child and Adolescent Assessment System was used to assess substance use and Universal Age I-E-12 to measure religious involvement. (3) Results: The findings suggest that the intrinsic orientation of religiousness (β = −0.048, p < 0.014), age (β = 0.374, p < 0.000), gender (β = 0.039, p < 0.040), and ethnic identity (β = 0.051, p < 0.008) have significant correlations with substance use. (4) Conclusions: The intrinsic orientation of religion is a relevant variable associated with consumption due to its non-instrumental characteristics of religion and practices aimed at self-exploration and self-knowledge that favor the subjective well-being of individuals, which could prevent drug use from becoming an alternative for dealing with conflicts in the children and young population of this region of Latin America.

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                  2022


                  COVID-19 and the right to education in Chile: An opportunity to revisit our social contract

                  COVID-19 and the right to education in Chile: An opportunity to revisit our social contract

                  Autoras/es: Denisse Gelber, Carolina Castillo, Luciano Alarcón, Ernesto Treviño & Rosario Escribano.

                  The COVID-19 pandemic is pushing the world into a devastating economic and social scenario. The consequences of this crisis largely impact children and teenagers, both now and in the future. School closures have particularly affected vulnerable children, deepening the effects of their unequal socio-economic circumstances. In this context, the actions governments are taking to protect their citizens’ right to education will be crucial to reducing or exacerbating inequality in the long term. The authors of this article analyse the case of Chile, one of the most successful countries in Latin America regarding educational achievement and enrolment, as well as the most segregated educational system among member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). How is the right to education being guaranteed for all during the COVID-19 pandemic? Are the measures taken by the Ministry of Education mitigating or intensifying long-term inequalities? Based on the 4-A scheme described by Katarina Tomasevski, which conceptualises national governments’ obligations to guarantee the right to education, the authors examine the normative basis of Chile’s market-oriented educational system (1980–2013) as well as the latest educational reform (2014–2017), which aimed to promote the right to quality education, and critically analyse the measures adopted by the Chilean Ministry of Education in response to the pandemic. The authors conclude that Chile is facing a major challenge to ensure the right to education for all. A new social contract is required to reduce structural inequalities, and to avoid a potential setback in human rights.

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                    2022


                    Indirect effects of bullying on school mathematics achievement in Chile

                    Indirect effects of bullying on school mathematics achievement in Chile

                    Autoras/es: D.Carrasco, R.Banerjee, N.López-Hornickel y E.Treviño.

                    Students who experience bullying at school present different negative outcomes, including lower academic achievement. However, the process by which bullying is connected to academic achievement is not clear. Using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) dataset from Chilean schools in 2011, we sought to estimate the indirect effects of bullying on mathematics achievement via two key socio-motivational factors, namely school belonging and students’ engagement. Results of our multilevel latent covariate analyses showed that schools’ bullying rates were predictive of school differences in mathematics achievement, but these effects were explained by broader characteristics of the school environment such as perceived levels of safety and discipline. Crucially, the hypothesized indirect pathway was evident at the within-school level, showing that individual experiences of bullying are related to a poorer sense of belonging with the school as a whole, as well as poorer classroom engagement.

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                      2022


                      University access policies for persons with disabilities: Lessons from two Chilean universities

                      University access policies for persons with disabilities: Lessons from two Chilean universities

                      Autoras/es: Eugenia Victoriano Villouta y Ernesto Treviño Villarreal.

                      Access to universities is still unequal for certain social groups as well as for those with disabilities. This study aims to find out the characteristics of the admission policies at two universities that have achieved a level of access for a significant proportion of this group, and which are pioneers in allowing said access. A literature review is presented to frame the study. A qualitative case study methodology is used that includes a documentary analysis of institutional policies and interviews with professors and students with disabilities. The results indicate that there are facilitators and barriers in the access of this group. Furthermore, admission policies are idiosyncratic to each institution. In view of this, the participants suggested proposals for promoting access to university for persons with disabilities.

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                      2022


                      Teacher motivation in Chile: Motivational profiles and teaching quality in an incentive-based education system

                      Teacher motivation in Chile: Motivational profiles and teaching quality in an incentive-based education system

                      Autoras/es: Miguel Órdenes, Ernesto Treviño, Rosario Escribano y Diego Carrasco.

                      This study drew on Chilean teacher survey responses from TALIS 2018 data on teacher motivation in order to examine the extent to which these data reveal different motivational profiles among Chilean teachers. Also, it explores the influence of those profiles on quality teachers’ instruction. As a conceptual scaffold, this article uses Agency Theory and Public Service Motivation theory to conceptualize and explore the data. Using latent classes analysis, multivariate regressions with survey methods, results showed three different motivational profiles: utility-laden, modal, and socially-laden. From these profiles, modal teachers seem to produce better teaching quality compared with the others profiles. These results suggest that the teachers’ profiles are more diverse when it comes to work motivation and teaching quality than what it is described in the literature. These findings give interesting insights for policymakers and school leaders to better understand the teaching workforce and think in diverse governance and teacher management tools. It also opens a set of interesting questions about how to motivate the teacher workforce in Chile.

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                      2022


                      A New Admission System in Chile and Its Foreseen Moderate Impact on Access for Low-Income Students

                      A New Admission System in Chile and Its Foreseen Moderate Impact on Access for Low-Income Students

                      Autoras/es: Ngaire Honey y  Alejandro Carrasco.

                      Chile is known for universal school choice policies and a high level of economic segregation. In part, segregation has been linked to selective school admission policies. Chile implemented a centralized school admission system (New School Admission System), where PK–12 schools must accept any applicant, and lottery assignment is used for oversubscription. We exploit a natural experiment due to the phased implementation across grades and regions to attempt to detect any effects of this policy on access for and representation of low-income students using grade-within-school and year fixed effects. Eliminating admissions barriers may contribute to increased educational opportunity, but the impact may be limited by the multiple structural factors shaping inequality in Chile. We find little short-term change in access for low-income students.

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                      2022


                      The Covid-19 Pandemic and Maternal Mental Health: A Longitudinal Study of Chilean and Foreign-Born Mothers

                      The Covid-19 Pandemic and Maternal Mental Health: A Longitudinal Study of Chilean and Foreign-Born Mothers

                      Autoras: Alejandra Abufhele, Marigen Narea and Amanda Telias.

                      Objectives: We explore the effects of the pandemic on stress, depressive symptoms and parenting practices of mothers with children aged between 24- and 30-months, residents in Santiago, Chile, and the differences between foreign‐born and native‐born mothers.

                      Methods: Using data from the longitudinal project Mil Primeros Días and lagged-dependent models, we analyzed parental stress, depressive symptoms and parenting practices for native-born and foreign-born mothers. Lagged-dependent model allows us to take advantage of the longitudinal data by controlling for the previous score and baseline individual characteristics.

                      Results: After 8 months of the pandemic, mothers of young children have more depressive symptoms, are more stressed, and show more hostility towards their children. Foreign-born mothers had 0.29 and 0.22 standard deviations (SD) more than native-born mothers in the parental distress and difficult child scales from the Parental Stress Index (PSI), respectively, and 0.17 SD more in the hostile-reactive parental behavior dimension.

                      Conclusion: Findings suggest the need to implement policies and programs that prevent mental health deterioration for mothers, especially migrant mothers, to improve women’s psychological condition and child wellness.

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                      2022


                      The Agency of Difference in Chilean School Policies and Practices: A BioSocioCultural Way-Out Perspective

                      The Agency of Difference in Chilean School Policies and Practices: A BioSocioCultural Way-Out Perspective

                      Autoras: Claudia Matus and Valentina Riberi.

                      In this paper, we explore the active production of difference (as lacking) through the School Vulnerability Index and the School Inclusion Law in Chile. Through a diffractive reading, we present the contradiction between these two policies. While discriminatory knowledge about school subjects is produced in the School Vulnerability Index as truth and common knowledge for the school community, the School Inclusion Law is designed to solve practices of discrimination at school. We contend that, to address issues of segregation in school settings, we have to question the kind of knowledge we need for a more democratic and just future. As a result, we trouble the separation of biological, social, and cultural realms on which instruments are based to continue segregation practices as a natural way to frame inclusion policies in educational contexts. We argue that both policies and instruments play a decisive role in the continuity of a culture of segregation in a neoliberal school tradition.

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                      2022


                      A mediation analysis to disentangle relations between maternal education and early child development

                      A mediation analysis to disentangle relations between maternal education and early child development

                      Autoras: Amanda TeliasMarigen Narea y Alejandra Abufhele.

                      Maternal education is associated with early child outcomes. However, the several mechanisms that may explain this relationship remain underexplored. Using data from 1,097 children aged 12–15 months in Chile, we estimate the maternal education gap across child cognitive and language outcomes. Following a bioecological perspective, we explore potential pathways by which maternal education might influence child development, such as child characteristics, the quantity and quality of mother–child interactions, and the availability of home stimulation. We found an average maternal education gap between children with mothers with the lowest and the highest educational levels of 0.36, 0.31, and 0.25 standard deviation in child cognition, expressive language, and receptive language, respectively. The mediational analysis showed that maternal stress and depression and the quality of the home environment mediated the relation between maternal education and child language and cognitive development.

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                      2022


                      Comparing degrees of ‘publicness’ and ‘privateness’ in school systems: the development and application of a public-private index

                      Comparing degrees of ‘publicness’ and ‘privateness’ in school systems: the development and application of a public-private index

                      Autoras/es: Gabriel Gutiérrez, Ruth Lupton, Alejandro Carrasco y Alejandra Rasse.

                      The process of privatising services historically provided by the state has blurred the boundaries between what is considered to be ‘private’ and ‘public’. However, few efforts have been made in the educational arena to develop tools to measure this process. Most of the previous research has relied on narrow definitions about what is private and what is public. This work proposes a tool to measure the degree of publicness-privateness of school systems, avoiding binary separation of the concepts. We develop an index and test this tool in two different landscapes: London and Santiago. In these cases, it serves to illustrate major changes in the levels of public-private participation in both school systems, reflecting differences between the systems and over time. We conclude that the index has potential for development and use in the analysis of public and private dimensions in education in broader international contexts.

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                      2022


                      Tutorías para niños, niñas y adolescentes: una oportunidad para la aceleración del aprendizaje integral pospandemia

                      Tutorías para niños, niñas y adolescentes: una oportunidad para la aceleración del aprendizaje integral pospandemia

                      Autoras/es: Verónica Cabezas, Susana Claro, Francisca Koppmann, Francisco Gallego, María Paz Monge, Marigen Narea y Paulo Volante.

                      La pandemia, y la crisis social y económica asociada a ella, sumada a la suspensión de clases presenciales, está generando un verdadero “terremoto” educativo, que se manifiesta en la pérdida de aprendizajes y experiencias relevantes para niños y niñas en el mundo. En Latinoamérica, a fines de 2020, se estimaba que se habían perdido, en promedio, 159 días lectivos de educación presencial. Junto con ello, datos de la Unesco (2022) muestran que a fines de febrero de 2022 más de 40 millones de estudiantes en el mundo aún estaban afectados por el cierre parcial o total de sus escuelas.

                      En esa línea, una serie de estudios ha sugerido que, dentro de los programas de remediación y aceleración de aprendizajes, las intervenciones no tradicionales pueden tener efectos positivos en los resultados de aprendizaje y de desarrollo integral. En particular, este artículo se enfocará en los programas de tutorías a escolares –entendidos como métodos de instrucción uno a uno
                      o en grupos pequeños realizados por profesores, otros profesionales de la educación, voluntarios o apoderados–, que se han identificado como uno de los proyectos educativos de mayor versatilidad e impacto.

                      El propósito de este trabajo es, en base a la evidencia disponible, proponer recomendaciones para implementar y escalar programas de tutoría a nivel nacional, proyectándolos como una política pública de alto impacto que trascienda el contexto de pandemia.

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                      2022


                      Evident demands and absent changes: special education teachers’ initial training in Chile

                      Evident demands and absent changes: special education teachers' initial training in Chile

                      Autoras/es: Rosario Palacios, Sofia Larrazabal y Manuel Monzalve.

                      This article discusses special education teachers’ initial training within public policies establishing teaching students with special educational needs and disabilities in mainstream classrooms. Based on the question of how special education teachers initial training in Chile is responding to inclusive education policy regulations, we describe and analyze discourses about training regarding special education and inclusive policies. Drawing on interviews with directors, graduates and teachers we underline significant dimensions of emergency and change in special education teaching careers regarding collaborative work within regular schools; influence of policy regulations such as School Integration Programs; strategies for diversification of teaching and evaluation; and resources or technologies for special education. Our conclusions address recommendations for teachers’ training, distinctions between regular teachers and special education teachers’ roles, and major attention to co-teaching strategies.

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                      2022


                      Diversity and homogeneity in Spanish-language picture books with non-human characters

                      Autoras/es: Xavier Mínguez-López y Macarena García-González.

                      We analyse a corpus of 99 recent Spanish-language picturebooks, based on converging recommendations of prestigious reading promotion institutions in different countries. Focusing on the books that feature non-human characters, we inquire into how animals and other creatures may open possibilities to present diverse and intercultural worlds narrating difference differently. Using critical content analysis with an intersectional lens, we give an overview of the predominant narratives about groups and societal organisations in recommended children’s books. Most of the books in this sample (re)produce a desire for a social homogeneity, depicting communities of similar creatures threatened by those of a different kind and/or by the destabilisation of hierarchical orders. We highlight a few books that open up possibilities to narrate shifting identities and social positionings, as well as dynamics of exclusion and propose to look at the potential of non-representational stories for intercultural education.

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                      2022


                      Becoming abject: testing the limits and borders of reading mediation

                      Autoras/es: Soledad Veliz y Macarena García-González.

                      Reading mediation is a concept used in Latin America and Spain, referring to the nurturing role played by adults in forging relationships between children and books. In this article, we conceptualize reading mediation as a ‘technology of affect’. We propose ‘mediation-as-usual’, a normative becoming of this technology, tasked with producing categories and identities regarding readers. Within this technology, adults are produced as empathetic, caring, and providers of safe spaces for reading. We report on literary encounters at a school in Santiago, Chile, with a ‘challenging’ picturebook. We were involved in the emergence of what we term ‘abject mediation’, a figuration that produces the limits and boundaries of mediation-as-usual, and, we argue, has transformative potential. However, this is an ephemeral figuration, as reterritorialization works to assimilate the border elements, actualizing mediation-as-usual. We discuss how these figurations may help to question normative ways of producing readers.

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                      2022


                      Mediación literaria como ética de cuidado en contextos adversos

                      Autoras/es: Soledad Veliz, Macarena García-González y Evelyn Arizpe.

                      En este artículo se explora la mediación con textos literarios en contextos adversos y espacios no convencionales (tales como campamentos, hospitales, centros comunitarios y otros) por parte de mediadoras de lectura radicadas en México y Chile. A través de un análisis temático de tipo deductivo de 20 entrevistas se establece una relación entre mediación literaria y las cuatro categorías de la ética del cuidado que esboza Joan Tronto (1993) (caring about, caring for, care giving and care receiving). Se concluye que la mediación literaria en estos contextos toma la forma de un acompañamiento que se organiza a través de una metodología de trabajo emergente con las comunidades, centrada en la escucha, orientada intuitivamente y situada, que apoya tanto prácticas de esparcimiento y distracción, como procesos de autoconocimiento y contención emocional. Se discute cómo esta práctica de mediación se involucra tanto con lógicas humanitarias de cuidado como con prácticas que descentran la autoridad y figura del libro en pos de otras relacionalidades.

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                      2022


                      Tensions at School: Education for Girls Under the Neoliberal Stamp

                      Tensions at School: Education for Girls Under the Neoliberal Stamp

                      Autoras/es: Luna Follegati, Claudia Matus y Valentina Errázuriz.

                      Problematizing the production of gender -and specifically of the feminine in the school context- is particularly complex. For some time now, it has been the students themselves who have pointed out the disagreement with an educational system that persists in implementing both institutional and daily actions that shape and produce sexist differences in a significant way. The school has thus become a space of dispute and territory in conflict, where new perspectives of girls and young women coexist in relation to the demands for rights, to make their voices heard and to publicly express their disagreement, in the current context of mobilizations that question the prevailing neoliberalism. From the above framework and context, ethnographies conducted in two educational establishments, during 2014-2018, will be analyzed. In them, it is possible to identify two relevant argumentative axes that account for the production of women as second-class subjects, accentuating the analysis in the crossing between the forms of economization of life in a neoliberal key, and the implications of this from a gender perspective.

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                      2022


                      Normative violence and the terms of recognizability as ‘woman’ in Chilean Catholic schools

                      Normative violence and the terms of recognizability as ‘woman’ in Chilean Catholic schools

                      Autoras/es: Valentina Errázuriz, Camila Lami y Camila Rodríguez.

                      In this article, we analyze our individually written testimonios and group conversations about our experience as ‘woman’ in Catholic schools in Chile, using Butler’s concept of performativity and Braidotti’s concept of nomadic subjectivity. We argue that some Catholic schools in Chile reproduce the category ‘woman’ as a pure, selfless, sexy, heterosexual mother who is an inferior and erasable being that is frequently discounted. This reproduction is done via different procedures of shaming, silencing, and even sexual violence. We experienced the telling of these testimonios as troubling but productive. First, this paper addresses the ideologies, values, and practices that Catholic schools construct around gender. Second, it suggests that the telling of and engagement with stories of embodied experiences is a beneficial strategy to battle gender oppression and work through productive discomfort and affects. Finally, the article considers the importance of dismantling subjectivity formation processes that consider some bodies as disposable.

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                      2022


                      Indirect effects of bullying on school mathematics achievement in Chile

                      Indirect effects of bullying on school mathematics achievement in Chile

                      Autoras/es: D. Carrasco, R. Banerjee, N. López-Hornickel y E. Treviño.

                      Students who experience bullying at school present different negative outcomes, including lower academic achievement. However, the process by which bullying is connected to academic achievement is not clear. Using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) dataset from Chilean schools in 2011, we sought to estimate the indirect effects of bullying on mathematics achievement via two key socio-motivational factors, namely school belonging and students’ engagement. Results of our multilevel latent covariate analyses showed that schools’ bullying rates were predictive of school differences in mathematics achievement, but these effects were explained by broader characteristics of the school environment such as perceived levels of safety and discipline. Crucially, the hypothesized indirect pathway was evident at the within-school level, showing that individual experiences of bullying are related to a poorer sense of belonging with the school as a whole, as well as poorer classroom engagement.

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                      2022


                      Understanding the Relationship between Preschool Teachers’ Well-Being, Interaction Quality and Students’ Well-Being

                      Understanding the Relationship between Preschool Teachers’ Well-Being, Interaction Quality and Students’ Well-Being

                      Autoras/es: Marigen Narea,  Ernesto Treviño,  Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar,  Catalina Miranda y Javiera Gutiérrez-Rioseco.

                      A substantial body of research shows that teacher-student interactions have a significant impact on student outcomes. However, to our knowledge, less is known about the association between teachers’ and students’ well-being and the implications for teacher–child interactions, particularly in the preschool context. Research Findings. Using ordinary least squares regression, we investigated the association between affective balance and burnout among 28 preschool teachers and the emotional and behavioral problems of 593 students between three and four years old. We found that teacher affective balance—not teacher burnout—was associated with fewer emotional and behavioral problems in children. Furthermore, the different domains of interaction quality affected children’s well-being in different ways. Practice or Policy. In initial teacher training and continuing professional development, teachers should be provided with support and strategies to help them manage their mental health and children well-being. Some interventions which have shown encouraging results are discussed.

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                      2022


                      Teacher motivation in Chile: Motivational profiles and teaching quality in an incentive-based education system

                      Teacher motivation in Chile: Motivational profiles and teaching quality in an incentive-based education system

                      Autoras/es: Miguel Órdenes, Ernesto Treviño, Rosario Escribano y Diego Carrasco.

                      This study drew on Chilean teacher survey responses from TALIS 2018 data on teacher motivation in order to examine the extent to which these data reveal different motivational profiles among Chilean teachers. Also, it explores the influence of those profiles on quality teachers’ instruction. As a conceptual scaffold, this article uses Agency Theory and Public Service Motivation theory to conceptualize and explore the data. Using latent classes analysis, multivariate regressions with survey methods, results showed three different motivational profiles: utility-laden, modal, and socially-laden. From these profiles, modal teachers seem to produce better teaching quality compared with the others profiles. These results suggest that the teachers’ profiles are more diverse when it comes to work motivation and teaching quality than what it is described in the literature. These findings give interesting insights for policymakers and school leaders to better understand the teaching workforce and think in diverse governance and teacher management tools. It also opens a set of interesting questions about how to motivate the teacher workforce in Chile.

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                      2022


                      University access policies for persons with disabilities: Lessons from two Chilean universities

                      University access policies for persons with disabilities: Lessons from two Chilean universities

                      Autoras/es: Eugenia Victoriano Villouta y Ernesto Treviño Villarreal.

                      Access to universities is still unequal for certain social groups as well as for those with disabilities. This study aims to find out the characteristics of the admission policies at two universities that have achieved a level of access for a significant proportion of this group, and which are pioneers in allowing said access. A literature review is presented to frame the study. A qualitative case study methodology is used that includes a documentary analysis of institutional policies and interviews with professors and students with disabilities. The results indicate that there are facilitators and barriers in the access of this group. Furthermore, admission policies are idiosyncratic to each institution. In view of this, the participants suggested proposals for promoting access to university for persons with disabilities.

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                      2022


                      Socioeconomic gradients in child development: Evidence from a Chilean longitudinal study 2010–2017

                      Socioeconomic gradients in child development: Evidence from a Chilean longitudinal study 2010–2017

                      Autoras/es: Alejandra Abufhele, Dante Contreras, Esteban Puentes, Amanda Telias y Natalia Valdebenito.

                      Empirical evidence shows that lack of resources during infancy and the process of accumulating disadvantages throughout childhood have important consequences for cognitive and socio-emotional development. This paper examines socioeconomic gradients across language and socio-emotional measures. Using longitudinal data from 7-year, three-wave panel data, we study the patterns of socioeconomic status and child development in Chile and estimate how much of the wealth gap can be explained by different mediators like maternal educational and skills, child attendance of preschool and school, possession of books, or domestic violence indicators. We show that there are strong associations between household wealth and child development, and that, as the child grows, the gap between the most extreme quintiles of the distribution, both in cognitive and socio-emotional skills, persists but decreases in magnitude. Taking advantage of the longitudinal nature of the data, we calculate a permanent skill for each child and each skill dimension in this 7-year period. The analysis for the permanent component shows that wealth gaps are important to determine language, but not socio-emotional skills, and that the gap is larger for girls than for boys in the early childhood period. While mediators account for some of the associations, there is still a large socioeconomic gap that persists in receptive language among children. The most important factors that mediate the wealth gaps are inherited from maternal characteristics. By understanding the dynamism of social and cognitive vulnerability experienced during childhood and employing longitudinal data and methods, this study contributes to and extends the existing literature on socioeconomic gaps and child development in the Latin American context.

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                      2022


                      Understanding the Relationship between Preschool Teachers’ Well-Being, Interaction Quality and Students’ Well-Being

                      Understanding the Relationship between Preschool Teachers’ Well-Being, Interaction Quality and Students’ Well-Being

                      Autoras/es: Marigen Narea, Ernesto Treviño, Alejandra Caqueo Urízar, Catalina Miranda y Javiera Gutiérrez-Rioseco.

                      A substantial body of research shows that teacher-student interactions have a significant impact on student outcomes. However, to our knowledge, less is known about the association between teachers’ and students’ well-being and the implications for teacher–child interactions, particularly in the preschool context. Research Findings. Using ordinary least squares regression, we investigated the association between affective balance and burnout among 28 preschool teachers and the emotional and behavioral problems of 593 students between three and four years old. We found that teacher affective balance—not teacher burnout—was associated with fewer emotional and behavioral problems in children. Furthermore, the different domains of interaction quality affected children’s well-being in different ways. Practice or Policy. In initial teacher training and continuing professional development, teachers should be provided with support and strategies to help them manage their mental health and children well-being. Some interventions which have shown encouraging results are discussed.

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                      2022


                      Bienestar Docente durante la Pandemia de COVID-19 en Chile: Demandas y Recursos para Afrontar la Angustia Psicológica

                      Bienestar Docente durante la Pandemia de COVID-19 en Chile: Demandas y Recursos para Afrontar la Angustia Psicológica

                      Autoras/es: Verónica Cabezas, Marigen Narea, David Torres Irribarra, Martín Icaza, Gonzalo Escalona y Andrés Reyes.

                      La pandemia por COVID-19 dejó a más de tres cuartas partes de los niños y jóvenes en el mundo sin poder asistir presencialmente a las escuelas durante el año 2020. La crisis está presionando a los educadores y docentes para que cambien su forma de hacer clases, lo que podría estar generando situaciones de mayor estrés para los profesores. Utilizando un cuestionario aplicado online a 6.064 profesores a nivel nacional, por medio de una muestra no probabilística realizada en contexto de pandemia en 2020, se realizaron análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios y regresiones lineales, usando modelos de ecuaciones estructurales, para analizar el nivel de angustia psicológica de los docentes y su relación con recursos y demandas del entorno del trabajo y factores sociodemográficos y contextuales. Los resultados muestran que principalmente las docentes mujeres, los docentes que están a cargo del cuidado de menores y adultos y los que trabajan en establecimientos particulares pagados son los que se han visto más afectados en su bienestar psicológico. Además, se observa que tener más tiempo disponible para preparar las clases y el poder compatibilizar los tiempos de trabajo y el hogar mejoran el índice de angustia psicológica. Contrario a lo esperado, el contar con más recursos que permita el trabajo a distancia se asocia a un aumento en la angustia psicológica de los docentes. Esto lleva a reflexionar acerca de la necesidad de contar con intervenciones y políticas que se enfoquen en el bienestar docente en el contexto de pandemia que se está viviendo.

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                      2022


                      Change in early childhood classroom interaction quality after a professional development programme (Cambio en la calidad de las interacciones pedagógicas en Educación Infantil tras un programa de desarrollo profesional)

                      Change in early childhood classroom interaction quality after a professional development programme (Cambio en la calidad de las interacciones pedagógicas en Educación Infantil tras un programa de desarrollo profesional)

                      Autoras/es: Elisa Torres, Marigen Narea y Susana Mendive.

                      The goal of this study was to analyse changes in classroom interaction quality in 85 early childhood classrooms in vulnerable social contexts in Santiago de Chile which participated in the first year of a professional development programme. Classroom interaction quality was measured using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) at the beginning and end of the school year. Contingency tables were built in the experimental and control groups and subsequently analysed with the chi-square and odds ratio. Results show that most classrooms maintained low quality levels, even after having received the intervention. A significant decrease in quality level of emotional support was also observed in the control group. These results have important implications for quality evaluation policy and practices and for the design and implementation of professional development programmes in early childhood education.

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                      2022


                      The Effect of COVID-19 Lockdowns on Maternal Mental Health and Parenting Practices Moderated by Urban Green Space

                      The Effect of COVID-19 Lockdowns on Maternal Mental Health and Parenting Practices Moderated by Urban Green Space

                      Autoras/es: Marigen Narea, Kenzo Asahi, Alejandra Abufhele, Amanda Telias, Damián Gildemeister y Santa Alarcón.

                      Stress generates difficulties in parenting, which affects child development. We aimed to understand the impact of COVID-19 lockdowns on maternal mental health and parenting practices. We also explored to what extent green space is a protective factor in the aforementioned relationship. We explored heterogeneous lockdown effects using longitudinal georeferenced data for 985 families (mothers and 24- to 30-month-olds) and exploiting localized lockdowns in Chile. Controlling for observed and unobserved fixed characteristics, on average, we did not find an association between lockdown duration and maternal mental health or parenting practices. However, the previous nonsignificant association is heterogeneous across access to green space. Although lockdown duration increased dysfunctional interactions with children for mothers with little access to green space, we did not see the previous effect on mothers who live close to green space. Mothers who do not comply with the lockdown mandate are the ones who drive this heterogeneous effect.

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                      2022


                      The impact of time of entrance to center-based care on children’s general, language, and behavioral development

                      The impact of time of entrance to center-based care on children’s general, language, and behavioral development

                      Autoras/es: Marigen Narea, Patricio Cumsille y Kasim Allel

                      There are contrasting results of the association between center-based care attendance and child development, mainly related to how the time of entry and permanence in the program relates to developmental outcomes. Using latent class analysis in a nationally representative sample of Chilean children between 6 and 35 months old (n = 3,992), and controlling for the child’s age, maternal education, mother’s marital status, and household income, we identify three different timings of entrance in center-based care programs. The three timings of entrance were defined as early-entry (16%), those children who are more likely to enter before they are 6 months old; middle-entry (16%), those who are more likely to enter when they are between 6 and 18 months old; and late-entry (68%), those children with a low probability of enrollment any time before they are 35 months old. We found that children from the early- and middle-entry classes had higher language development when compared with children from the late-entry class. Still, only those from the middle-entry class showed higher general development in the Battelle test. In contrast, children in the early- and middle-entry classes presented higher scores in the Child Behavior Checklist’s externalizing behavior scale than children in the late-entry class. Our findings highlight the existence of a likely linkage between the timing of entry to center-based care and child development. It is essential to understand the potential advantages of center-based care in younger children, especially in enhancing their vocabulary and general development, and the potential negative association of early-entry with problematic behavior.

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                      2021


                      Socioeconomic Status, Parental Involvement and Implications for Subjective Well-Being During the Global Pandemic of Covid-19

                      Socioeconomic Status, Parental Involvement and Implications for Subjective Well-Being During the Global Pandemic of Covid-19

                      Autoras/es: Ernesto Treviño, Catalina Miranda, Macarena Hernández y Cristóbal Villalobos

                      School closures prompted by the global outbreak of COVID-19 have impacted children’s subjective well-being. In this context, a growing number of studies has pointed out that the experience of learning at home is an essential factor influencing their subjective well-being, raising the importance of parental involvement in the educational process of their children. This article explores the formal and informal parental practices of home learning during school closures period in 19 countries and their explanatory factors, with the further aim of discussing their implications for children’s subjective well-being. The study uses the International COVID-19 Impact on Parental Engagement Study (ICIPES) database and develops a regression analysis of family, child, and school factors predicting parental involvement in homeschooling. The main findings show that parents’ socioeconomic status is a critical predictor of both formal and informal parental practices. In addition, the results denote the impact of other factors, such as the level of parental confidence with the use of technology and children’s age and gender (in the case of informal activities). Based on these findings, the article discusses policy implications to promote parental involvement and children’s subjective well-being.

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                      2021


                      Chile’s enduring educational segregation: A trend unchanged by different cycles of reform

                      Chile’s enduring educational segregation: A trend unchanged by different cycles of reform

                      Autores: Gabriel Gutiérrez y Alejandro Carrasco

                      Socioeconomic segregation continues to be a central issue for education systems in which market-driven reforms have been implemented. This study analyses trends of socioeconomic segregation in Chile (1999–2018), considering a period with an absence of policies aimed at reducing segregation (1999–2007) and a later stage (2008–2015) when measures were implemented with the potential to affect the socioeconomic composition of schools. Results show that the segregation of both disadvantaged and wealthy students increased to extremely high levels during the first period, and has not shown signs of any significant decrease since then. The slight reduction observed in the second period is associated with changes regarding school fees in the private subsidised education sector rather than the selectivity status of the schools. The challenges faced in fostering greater socioeconomic integration within a market-driven educational system are discussed in this article.

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                      2021


                      Self-segregation strategies through school choice in Chile: A middle-class domain

                      Self-segregation strategies through school choice in Chile: A middle-class domain

                      Autoras/es: Alejandro Carrasco, Manuela Mendoza y Carolina Flores

                      Sociological research has shown that marketized educational systems favour middle-class families’ self-segregation strategies through school choice and, consequently, the reproduction of their social advantage over poorer families. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of capitals, habitus and strategy, we analyse quantitative and ethnographic data on parents’ school choice from Chile to introduce nuances to this argument, evincing more extended and complex mechanisms of self-segregation in the Chilean marketized educational system. We found that not only middle-class parents but also parents from different socioeconomic groups displayed self-segregating school choice strategies. We also found that these strategies were performed both vertically (in relation to other social classes) and horizontally (in relation to other groups within the same social class). These findings unwrap a possible stronger effect of the Chilean school choice system over segregation.

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                      2021


                      Clases medias e inclusión escolar: Explorando la zona de mediación de la desegregación en las Escuelas

                      Clases medias e inclusión escolar: Explorando la zona de mediación de la desegregación en las escuelas

                      Autoras/es: Macarena Hernández, Alejandro Carrasco

                      Este artículo explora la implementación de la Ley de Inclusión Escolar (LIE) en las escuelas desde la perspectiva de las clases medias. El trabajo se enmarca en el enfoque de la zona de mediación de las políticas de desegregación y se basa en un estudio de caso de tres escuelas particulares-subvencionadas que educan a distintas fracciones de las clases medias de la región de Magallanes que han experimentado cambios en su composición social desde la introducción del Nuevo Sistema de Admisión Escolar. Los resultados destacan la presencia de poderosas fuerzas normativas y políticas que permean el rechazo de las familias a la LIE, subrayan la emergencia de importantes distinciones simbólicas entre antiguos/nuevos y la presión a la separación entre ambos grupos dentro de las comunidades, y apuntan al débil rol de los educadores en el abordaje de las aprensiones de los apoderados ante el cambio. A partir de estos hallazgos, el trabajo discute la complejidad de la implementación de la LIE en escuelas de clases medias y los desafíos del avance a la desegregación en el espacio escolar.

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                      2021


                      The legacy of busing and Brown: How school desegregation experiences shape public

                      The Legacy of Busing and Brown: How School Desegregation Experiences Shape Public Perceptions and Communities’ School Diversity Priorities in the Resegregation Era

                      Autoras/es: Ngaire Honey y Claire Smrekar

                      In a context that privileges neighborhood zoning and school choice over within-district busing, we examine urban residents’ perceptions of the benefits of racial diversity. We analyze public opinion trends by race and residents’ experience as a student in a district under court-ordered desegregation—Nashville, TN. We find racial differences regarding the values of proximity and school diversity that are moderated by experience as a school-age resident in a city under mandatory desegregation. We build upon literature showing long-term impacts of attending integrated schools, underscoring the influence of time, place, and experience in shaping perceptions of school diversity policies.

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                      2021


                      School admission in Chile, new rules of the game, and the devaluation of Middle-class

                      School admission in Chile, new rules of the game, and the devaluation of Middle-class

                      Autoras/es: Alejandro Carrasco, Macarena Hernández, Ngaire Honey y Juan de Dios Oyarzún

                      This paper illustrates the influence of a new national assignment system (NSAS) on Chilean middle-class advantage. This system was designed to increase educational equity by changing the previous school admission “rules” that were prejudicial against low-income students. We use Bourdieu’s conceptual tools, drawing on concepts of capitals and field, to analyse the influence of the new rules of the game on the value of middle-class capitals. To understand how the new rules shape middle-class families’ advantages, we link qualitative and quantitative analyses that empirically explore how families subjectively interpret the policy change and how objectively it shapes their access to desired schools. The qualitative phase shows that middle-class parents experience the NSAS as a risky new scenario. However, quantitative analysis shows the NSAS is associated with only a modest decrease in middle class-advantages. We illustrate the difficulty of transforming marketized educational systems, where previously privileged families react against equity-driven changes.

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                      2021


                      The Normativity of Marriage and the Marriage Premium for Children’s Outcomes

                      The Normativity of Marriage and the Marriage Premium for Children’s Outcomes

                      Autoras: Florencia Torche y Alejandra Abufhele

                      Children born to married parents have better health, behavioral, educational, and economic outcomes than children of unmarried mothers. This association, known as the “marriage premium,” has been interpreted as emerging from the selectivity of parents who marry and from a positive effect of marriage. The authors suggest that the positive effect of marriage could be contextual, emerging from the normativity of marriage in society. They test this hypothesis using the case of Chile, where marital fertility dropped sharply from 66% of all births in 1990 to 27% in 2016. The authors find that the benefit of marriage for infant health was large in the early 1990s but declined as marital fertility became less normative in society, to fully disappear in 2016. Multivariate analysis of temporal variation, multilevel models of variation across place, sibling fixed effects models, and a falsification test consistently indicate that marriage has a beneficial effect when marital fertility is normative and a weak effect when is not. Generalizing from this case, the authors discuss contextual effects of diverse practices and statuses.

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                      2021


                      Interacciones parentales para el cuidado, aprendizaje y desarrollo de los niños y niñas en Chile Síntesis de principales resultados

                      Interacciones parentales para el cuidado, aprendizaje y desarrollo de los niños y niñas en Chile

                      Autoras/es: Godoy, F &amp; Narea, M

                      La Primera Infancia es una etapa fundamental para el desarrollo de las personas en la que se configuran las bases de la arquitectura cerebral relacionadas con la capacidad de aprendizaje, interacción, adaptación al entorno y desarrollo emocional. Se trata de un período altamente sensible, en que el cerebro evoluciona rápidamente, por lo tanto el potencial que los niños y niñas puedan desarrollar dependerá, en gran medida, de su entorno, estimulación y los cuidados que se les brinden. Los estudios sobre parentalidad han demostrado cómo las prácticas asociadas al cuidado y aprendizaje impactan en variadas dimensiones de su desarrollo, como el desarrollo físico, las habilidades linguísticas, matemáticas y socioemocionales, entre otras. Un entorno cariñoso y sensible a las necesidades de los niños no solo ayuda a que ellos desarrollen al máximo sus potencialidades, sino además, los protege contra los efectos de situaciones adversas. (Nurturing Care Framework). Utilizando la información que entregó la tercera encuesta Longitudinal de Primera Infancia (ELPI) se analizó de qué forma las interacciones entre cuidadores, niños y niñas, inserto en contextos socioculturales determinados, se asocian al desarrollo infantil en Chile.

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                      2021


                      Life Satisfaction on childhood: Latin American Immigrant Children in Chile

                      Life satisfaction in childhood: Latin American immigrant children in Chile

                      Autoras/es: Urzúa, A., Caqueo-Urízar, A., Alquinta, B., Jeria, R., Jorquera, R. &amp; Xiong Lau, X.

                      The goal of the current study was to evaluate life satisfaction in a sample of 300 immigrant children aged between 8 and 13 years old. Satisfaction in different domains and overall life, was evaluated using the General Domain Satisfaction Index and the Overall Life Satisfaction index, respectively. These instruments were also applied to a sample of 300 non-immigrant children of similar age. Statistically significant differences were found only in the 12–13 years group, where the mean scores for immigrants were lower than those for natives, on the domains of family and home, material goods, interpersonal relationships, health, and use of time. Additionally, immigrants had higher mean scores on the domains of area of residence, school, and personal satisfaction. These results allow us to reflect on the influence of society in all domains throughout their lives. Thus, these findings contribute toward the creation of policies that integrate migrants.

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                      2021


                      Civil disorder, Authority Credibility and Public Health: Chile’s unique sociopolitical context in dealing with COVID-19.

                      Civil disorder, authority credibility and public health: Chile’s unique sociopolitical context in dealing with COVID-19

                      Autoras/es: Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar, Alfonso Urzúa, Diego Aragón, Diego Atencio, Akaninyene Otu, Sanni Yaya

                      On 3 March 2020, the first case of coronavirus was confirmed in the country, approximately five months after 18 October 2019, one of Chile’s biggest episodes of civil unrest since its return to democracy in the 90s [1]. This social unrest was triggered by deep social inequalities and resulted in massive protests throughout the country. The citizens were responding to widespread inequalities in various sectors such as jobs, housing, education and public health and the main Chilean governmental institutions were called to account [2]. These social unrests severely dented the government’s credibility and compromised the reliability of key governmental institutions such as law enforcement and the military, all of them, now playing a key role in the Public Health response to the novel coronavirus.

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                      2021


                      Effects of Resilience and Acculturation Stress on Integration and Social Competence of Migrant Children and Adolescents in Northern Chile.

                      Effects of Resilience and Acculturation Stress on Integration and Social Competence of Migrant Children and Adolescents in Northern Chile.

                      Autoras/es: Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar, Alfonso Urzúa, Carolang Escobar-Soler, Jerome Flores, Patricio Mena-Chamorro y Ester Villalonga-Olives

                      Migration in Chile has increased exponentially in recent years, with education being one of the main focuses of attention in this cultural transformation. Integration and social competence in the migrant population are determined by several factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of resilience and acculturation stress on the levels of integration and social competence in migrant students in Northern Chile. In total, 292 school children of both genders aged 8 to 18, from the fourth grade to senior year of high school, participated in the investigation. A subscale of the Child and Adolescent Assessment System (Sistema de evaluación de niños y adolescentes SENA) was used to assess integration and social competence. Additionally, the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-12) and the Acculturation Stress Source Scale (FEAC) were used. The results show that integration and social competence have statistically significant and direct associations with resilience (p < 0.001) and indirect associations with acculturation stress (p = 0.009). Both constructs could be defined as protection and risk factors, respectively, and should be considered in educational contexts to favor adaptation in the integration of migrant children and adolescents.

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                      2021


                      Perceived discrimination and contextual problems among children and adolescents in northern Chile

                      Perceived discrimination and contextual problems among children and adolescents in northern Chile

                      Autoras/es: Jerome Flores , Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar , Lirna Quintana , Alfonso Urzúa y Matías Irarrázaval

                      Discriminatory behaviors among inter-ethnic relations in schools have long been noted and studied, but there are several correlations between discriminatory behaviors and other constructs that need further investigation. As an example, the relation between perceived discrimination and contextual problems—which include family, school and peer problems—among children and adolescents in Latin America has received little attention from previous studies. Further, the mediating role of ethnic identification and collective self-esteem in this relation also needs to be considered as they could be proven as protective factors for discriminatory behavior and its outcomes. Therefore, this study aimed to, first, establish the relationship between perceived discrimination and contextual problems in inter-ethnic students aged 8–19 years living in Arica, Chile; and second, to identify the role that ethnic identification and collective self-esteem play within this relation. In order to investigate this matter, a cross-sectional study was carried out with 3700 students in 29 schools between the fourth year of primary education and the last year of secondary education, aged between 9–18 years, with 48.4% men and 51.6% women. The sample was divided into primary and secondary school groups. The scales utilized were the Everyday Discrimination Scale, Multi-Group Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised Scale, Collective Self-Esteem Scale and the dimensions of contextual family, school and peer problems, as well as the general index of contextual problems of the Child and Adolescent Assessment System. For data analysis, we tested a path analytic model at both the within and between levels to account for the relations between variables. In each group the models obtained an optimal fit. We found that perceived discrimination and ethnic identification were directly related to contextual problems (.23-.39), and collective self-esteem had only a mediating role. This study showed that strategized interventions focusing on ethnic identification and perceived discrimination should be utilized by schools to create a better developing environment.

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                      2021


                      Ethnic identity and life satisfaction in indigenous adolescents: The mediating role of resilience

                      Ethnic identity and life satisfaction in indigenous adolescents: The mediating role of resilience

                      Autoras/es: Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar , Jerome Flores, Patricio Mena-Chamorro, Alfonso Urzúa y Matías Irarrázaval

                      Research assessing the association between Life Satisfaction and Resilience has increased considerably because it is recognized as an important variable in enhancing adolescent well-being. However, they have focused on non-indigenous youth and have scarcely addressed the needs of those belonging to ethnic minorities, particularly in Latin America. The aim of this study was to assess the mediating relationship of resilience on the association between ethnic identity and life satisfaction in Aymara adolescents.

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                      2021


                      Reading promotion, conflict negation and peaceful conviviality: The uses and hopes for literary education in Chile. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 0(0), 1–11.

                      Reading promotion, conflict negation and peaceful conviviality: the uses and hopes for literary education in Chile

                      Autoras: Macarena García-González y Valentina Errázuriz

                      This article inquires into what sort of socioemotional education and conviviality are produced when pleasurable literary reading is encouraged in neoliberal cultures. We critically explore the celebration of reading for socioemotional education as it is produced in official government documents distributed to schools in Chile. Assisted by Sara Ahmed’s conceptualisation of the cultural politics of emotions and Chantal Mouffe’s agonistic theory, we highlight how literary reading is promoted as a tool to manage difference and resolve conflict. We relate the hopes set on reading to a celebratory cult of happiness in which structural injustices are erased.

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                      2021


                      Normative violence and the terms of recognizability as ‘woman’ in Chilean Catholic schools. Gender and Education, 34(4),

                      Normative violence and the terms of recognizability as ‘woman’ in Chilean Catholic schools

                      Autoras: Valentina Errázuriz, Camila Lami y Camila Rodríguez

                      In this article, we analyze our individually written testimonios and group conversations about our experience as ‘woman’ in Catholic schools in Chile, using Butler’s concept of performativity and Braidotti’s concept of nomadic subjectivity. We argue that some Catholic schools in Chile reproduce the category ‘woman’ as a pure, selfless, sexy, heterosexual mother who is an inferior and erasable being that is frequently discounted. This reproduction is done via different procedures of shaming, silencing, and even sexual violence. We experienced the telling of these testimonios as troubling but productive. First, this paper addresses the ideologies, values, and practices that Catholic schools construct around gender. Second, it suggests that the telling of and engagement with stories of embodied experiences is a beneficial strategy to battle gender oppression and work through productive discomfort and affects. Finally, the article considers the importance of dismantling subjectivity formation processes that consider some bodies as disposable.

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                      2021


                      “More person, and, therefore, more satisfied and happy”: The affective economy of reading promotion in Chile. Curriculum Inquiry, 51(2), 229–260.

                      “More person, and, therefore, more satisfied and happy”: The affective economy of reading promotion in Chile

                      Autoras: Valentina Errázuriz y Macarena García-González

                      Reading is often regarded as a public good and an essential part of developing almost every aspect of human potential. In this article, we survey the “affective economies” of literary reading through a textual and visual analysis of documents issued by Chile’s Ministry of Education. Through a critical and diffractive reading of these documents with Ahmed’s (2004, 2010) and Braidotti’s (2018) conceptualizations of the affective, we claim that when reading is presented as beneficial, pleasurable, and promising, an assemblage of exclusion is set into motion. We describe how the affective repertoires in these documents reinforce oppressive and exclusionary neoliberal values under the guise of the promise of future happiness. The pleasure and happiness that can be achieved through literary reading, however, is only accessible to those who are willing to orientate themselves in the “right ways.” In this orientation, the cognitive is privileged over the emotional, and readers are supposed to learn to postpone any current demands for the promise of future happiness.

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                      2021


                      Becoming “Hijas de la Lucha”: Political subjectification, affective intensities, and historical narratives in a Chilean all-girls high school. Theory &amp; Research in Social Education, 49(1), 27–53.

                      Becoming “Hijas de la Lucha”: Political subjectification, affective intensities, and historical narratives in a Chilean all-girls high school

                      Autora: Valentina Errázuriz

                      This article explores the processes by which Chilean female feminist public high school students used political and historical narratives and symbols during the feminist movement of 2018. It analyzes how these particular usages were crossed by affective intensities that worked to produce students’ political subjectivities as collective and agentic. This affective work was produced with other members of the school community and sometimes was met with anger, policing practices, and desires to exclude students from particular historical narratives. The data for this article were produced within a yearlong critical ethnographic study on the processes of production of high school feminist students’ gender and political subjectivities in Chile, which included participant observation, testimonios interviews, art-based collective testimonios workshops, and analysis through affect theory. The findings show the types of historical and political narratives and symbols used by students, what affective intensities that crossed these symbols did to the students’ political subjectivities, and the conflicts these intensities produced within the school community. The article concludes by examining how these findings might open new questions within the field of social studies education research.

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                      2021


                      Normality and difference in education: relational encounters at school boundaries

                      Normality and difference in education: relational encounters at school boundaries

                      Autoras/es: García, A., Haye, A., Matus, C., &amp; López, V

                      Substantialist ethnographic approaches have been questioned for situating studies into stable groups and places, thereby creating rigid categories of diversity. In this study, we approached school normality through a relational ethnography, where the focus is on fields rather than places, and boundaries rather than bounded groups. Extended fieldwork was done at two schools in Santiago de Chile, where we embarked on a flexible journey to follow daily school life. We analysed situational encounters between the ethnographer and school actors at the school boundary as relational fields. Findings show that the institutional schools’ structures and norms seen at the boundary define the terrain where the relation between schools and differences is revealed. In this context, normality takes the form of resistance, nostalgia, and risk, defining how differences within the student body are constructed.

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                      2021


                      Chasing Remarkable Lives: a Problematization of Empowerment Stories for Girls” In
                      Journal of Literary Education (3), pp 45-62.

                      Chasing Remarkable Lives: a Problematization of Empowerment Stories for Girls

                      Autora: Macarena García-González

                      This article explores the question of how to assess children’s literature as feminist. Drawing upon a revision of the concept of postfeminism as a gendered neoliberalism that cultivates the ‘right’ disposition for succeeding in a neoliberal society, I bring together two possible objects of study upon which I outline some problematic aspects. I begin by focusing on a publishing phenomenon of the last few years: the biography compilations, such as the crowdfunded Good Night Stories for Rebel Girls, that, in a more or less explicit manner, aim to provide younger generations with new repertoires of gendered agencies. Then I analyze two picturebooks that have been recommended by reading promotion agencies and praised for their anti-sexist values: Tirititesa and La bella Griselda. In both these picturebooks, we find two protagonists tran sgressing gender norms and heteronormative ideals of romantic love. Yet, I argue that they reproduce systems of exclusions that are quite problematic if read from feminist intersectionality. The texts analyzed  are modeled by a postfeminist sensibility in which a celebratory “girl power” is put forward, while obscuring how (gendered) exclusions work.

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                      2021


                      Marco Regulatorio para la Inclusión de Estudiantes con Necesidades Educativas
                      Especiales en Chile: un Análisis en Torno a Prácticas Escolares

                      Normative Framework for the Inclusion of Students with Special Educational Needs in Chile: An Analysis of School Practices

                      Autor: Pablo Sandoval, Rosario Palacios, Sofia Larrazabal, Rocío Berwart

                      Presentamos una revisión del estado de la legislación sobre educación especial en Chile y un análisis cualitativo de su aplicación en escuelas regulares con Programas de Integración Escolar. Exponemos que la normativa para la integración de niñas/os con Necesidades Educativas Especiales se enmarca en un contexto enfocado en la rendición de cuentas sin criterios comunes que faciliten su interpretación. Como consecuencia, los actores involucrados ponen en práctica las normas de diversas formas, lo que incluye el abordar la normativa respecto a asuntos administrativos y financieros para intentar que no obstaculice la inclusión de manera universal.

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                      2021


                      ¿Es Siempre Exitosa la Inclusión Educativa? Resultados Comparativos del Sistema
                      Regular y Especial

                      Autor: Ricardo Rosas, Victoria Espinoza, Elisa Hohlberg y Sanndy Infante

                      2021


                      La co-docencia efectiva como condición fundamental para el éxito de los Programas de
                      Integración Escolar (PIE)

                      La co-docencia efectiva como condición fundamental para el éxito de los Programas de Integración Escolar (PIE)

                      Autoras/es: Ricardo Rosas y Rosario Palacios

                      Desde hace ya más de 10 años, en las escuelas chilenas se están implementando políticas educacionales que buscan la inclusión de los estudiantes con necesidades educativas especiales (NEE) y discapacidad en las aulas regulares (Rosas et al., 2019). La Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (Unesco) entiende las NEE como aquellas características de los estudiantes que se relacionan con barreras para aprender y, en consecuencia, define inclusión como educación para todos (Booth y Ainscow, 2002). En su manifiesto Educación Para Todos este organismo internacional propone de manera general que todos los estudiantes de una escuela deben poder participar en la cultura del establecimiento, el currículo, la comunidad y los espacios de aprendizaje. El énfasis puesto en la participación se traduce en reducir las barreras para acceder a cada uno de los espacios y situaciones escolares. Es este marco el que ha guiado las políticas públicas chilenas para los estudiantes con NEE y discapacidad y, en esta línea, se mandatan acciones tales como apelar a la enseñanza para todos los estudiantes en una misma sala de clases, otorgando especial atención a los estudiantes con NEE o discapacidad, y realizar adaptaciones a los contenidos curriculares y las evaluaciones que rigen para ellos. En Chile, la medida principal para incluir a los estudiantes con NEE o discapacidad en las escuelas regulares está contenida en el Decreto Nº 170 (2009) del Ministerio de Educación (Mineduc) y consiste en enseñar a tal grupo de estudiantes en aulas regulares, para lo que las escuelas deben contratar profesores diferenciales que enseñen en ellas junto al profesor regular. La investigación que presentamos en este artículo trata específicamente sobre la política de co-docencia y sus posibilidades y limitaciones para lograr la inclusión de estudiantes con NEE. Nuestro interés es vincular las prácticas de co-docencia observadas a la normativa de los Programas de Integración Escolar (PIE), con el objetivo de analizar la política entendiendo la co-docencia efectiva como su columna vertebral. Primero, entregamos una breve descripción del funcionamiento de la política pública que norma los PIE y un panorama general de la matrícula de estudiantes con NEE en Chile. Luego, describimos nuestro estudio, su metodología y hallazgos, y finalizamos con el análisis y las conclusiones.

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                      2021


                      Inclusión de estudiantes con necesidades educativas en Chile: tensiones entre teoría y
                      práctica

                      Inclusión de estudiantes con necesidades educativas en Chile: tensiones entre teoría y práctica

                      Autoras: Rosario Palacios, Sofia Larrazabal, Rocío Berwart

                      Este artículo discute la forma en que la política pública entiende el concepto de inclusión de los estudiantes con necesidades educativas especiales o dis- capacidad, lo traduce en normativa y lleva tales regulaciones a la práctica. A partir de una observación etnográfica, exploramos las variadas formas en que se implementan prácticas inclusivas en el marco de la política edu- cacional chilena. Nuestro hallazgo principal es que no existe un concepto de inclusión único y fijo en la actualización de la política pública, sino que se materializa en la práctica de formas dinámicas y múltiples, poniendo en contacto diversos actores, humanos y no-humanos, los cuales despliegan sus agencias. Esta situación hace difícil la puesta en marcha de una política nacional unívoca, pero a la vez abre paso a la posibilidad de territorializar situadamente ciertas prácticas y saberes.

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                      2021


                      Inclusión de estudiantes sordos en aulas regulares en Chile: posibilidades y
                      limitaciones desde un análisis de prácticas de aula

                      Inclusión de Estudiantes Sordos/as en Escuelas Regulares en Chile: Posibilidades y Limitaciones desde un Análisis de Prácticas de Aula

                      Autoras: Sofia Larrazabal, Rosario Palacios y Victoria Espinoza

                      La implementación de políticas educativas inclusivas en Chile ha sido un proceso que no ha estado exento de dificultades. Este artículo explora diferentes prácticas sociales e institucionales desarrolladas durante la escolarización de estudiantes sordos/as. Se analizan interacciones entre estudiantes, docentes e intérpretes en clases con estudiantes sordos/as, interacciones sociales entre estudiantes, disposiciones escolares respecto a la inclusión y, por último, aspectos administrativos y financieros relacionados al modelo de política pública imperante. A través de una aproximación a dos escuelas públicas en Santiago de Chile, profundizamos en los modos en que el estudiantado sordo se desenvuelve entre la integración y la inclusión. Basándonos en observaciones de clases y entrevistas con profesores, intérpretes, estudiantes y directivos de comunidades escolares, describimos hallazgos respecto de la significación de la lengua de señas, los roles de intérpretes y educadores, el aprendizaje comunitario de la lengua de señas y el rol del aula de recursos. Se discuten los resultados en torno a las condiciones necesarias para la inclusión de estudiantes sordos, describiendo las prácticas docentes como un elemento clave para la generación de una verdadera inclusión dentro del aula, y las prácticas culturales de la comunidad escolar como posibles favorecedoras de la inclusión fuera de ella.

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                      2021


                      Problemas Socioemocionales en Niños con Discapacidad Auditiva, Discapacidad Visual
                      y Desarrollo Típico

                      Autor: Santa Cruz, Catalina; Espinoza, Victoria; Hohlberg, Elisa

                      2021


                      Understanding the Relationship between Preschool Teachers’ Well‑Being, Interaction
                      Quality and Students’ Well‑Being

                      Understanding the Relationship between Preschool Teachers’ Well-Being, Interaction Quality and Students’ Well-Being

                      Autoras/es: Marigen Narea; Ernesto Treviño; Alejandra CaqueoUrízar; Catalina Miranda y Javiera Gutiérrez Rioseco

                      A substantial body of research shows that teacher-student interactions have a significant impact on student outcomes. However, to our knowledge, less is known about the association between teachers’ and students’ well-being and the implications for teacher–child interactions, particularly in the preschool context. Research Findings. Using ordinary least squares regression, we investigated the association between affective balance and burnout among 28 preschool teachers and the emotional and behavioral problems of 593 students between three and four years old. We found that teacher affective balance—not teacher burnout—was associated with fewer emotional and behavioral problems in children. Furthermore, the different domains of interaction quality affected children’s well-being in different ways. Practice or Policy. In initial teacher training and continuing professional development, teachers should be provided with support and strategies to help them manage their mental health and children well-being. Some interventions which have shown encouraging results are discussed.

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                      2021


                      Socioeconomic status, parental involvement and implications for subjective well-being
                      during the global pandemic of Covid-19

                      Socioeconomic Status, Parental Involvement and Implications for Subjective Well-Being During the Global Pandemic of Covid-19

                      Autoras/es: Ernesto Treviño, Catalina Miranda, Macarena Hernández y Cristóbal Villalobos

                      School closures prompted by the global outbreak of COVID-19 have impacted children’s subjective well-being. In this context, a growing number of studies has pointed out that the experience of learning at home is an essential factor influencing their subjective well-being, raising the importance of parental involvement in the educational process of their children. This article explores the formal and informal parental practices of home learning during school closures period in 19 countries and their explanatory factors, with the further aim of discussing their implications for children’s subjective well-being. The study uses the International COVID-19 Impact on Parental Engagement Study (ICIPES) database and develops a regression analysis of family, child, and school factors predicting parental involvement in homeschooling. The main findings show that parents’ socioeconomic status is a critical predictor of both formal and informal parental practices. In addition, the results denote the impact of other factors, such as the level of parental confidence with the use of technology and children’s age and gender (in the case of informal activities). Based on these findings, the article discusses policy implications to promote parental involvement and children’s subjective well-being.

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                      2021


                      Are the school choices of indigenous students affected by discrimination? Evidence
                      from Chile

                      Are the School Choices of Indigenous Students Affected by Discrimination? Evidence From Chile

                      Autoras/es: Alvaro Hofflinger, Cristóbal Villalobos, Loreto Cárdenas y Ernesto Treviño

                      One of the most common criticisms of school choice programs is that instead of improving student achievement, they would increase school segregation. From the supply side, schools can select their student body, especially those students who they perceive to be easier and less costly to educate. From the demand side, parents can use different criteria to choose a school, such as their proximity to the school, school quality or the school’s ethnic/racial composition. As a result, the system would be segregated based on the parents’ preferences. This research examines indigenous parents’ school preferences and whether ethnic discrimination influences their decision-making process. We analyzed a longitudinal national-level data from Chile, a country with national school choice since 1981, using difference-in-difference analysis. The results show that indigenous students and particularly those who have suffered ethnic discrimination in middle school, prefer high schools with a higher percentage of indigenous students. Furthermore, we found that the level of acts discrimination occurred in middle schools due to the students’ ethnicity increases as the percentage of indigenous students rises; however, when the proportion of indigenous and non-indigenous students is similar, indigenous students are less likely to face ethnicity-based discrimination.

                       

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                      2021


                      Socioeconomic segregation between and within curriculum tracking

                      Socioeconomic segregation between and within curriculum tracking

                      Autoras/es: Maria Paola Sevilla y Ernesto Trevino

                      Previous studies have documented social segregation for single types of tracking, but little previous research has compared levels of segregation across different institutional tracking arrangements. This paper uses extensive administrative data of the Chilean educational system to estimate the magnitude and evolution of socioeconomic segregation between- and within-school curriculum tracking. Results indicate that the unequal distribution of students by socioeconomic status between tracks narrows when tracking takes place within schools, mainly in the presence of market incentives that lead schools to focus on particular student populations.

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                      2021


                      Students Ratings Their Open Classroom Discussion

                      Students Ratings Their Open Classroom Discussion

                      Autoras/es: Diego Carrasco, Ernesto Treviño, Natalia López Hornickel y Carolina Castillo

                      Open classroom discussion (OPD) is a recognized school practice, that promotes civic knowledge on students. However, the study of its effectiveness includes various methodological challenges. OPD items are reference-shift items, and if their rater-response nature is ignored, researchers may specify a compositional model leading to underestimation. Moreover, OPD scores of schools are subject to students inter rater variability. Common advice in this regard is to exclude groups with low inter-rater agreement. Nevertheless, this recommendation can result into a considerable loss of sample. In this paper, we argue that a within-between model specification is needed to address the first problem. For the second problem, it is proposed to use a dispersion effect model. This later model studies OPD relations to civic knowledge, at conditional levels of students’ lack of agreement on OPD ratings. Caveats on the use of students as raters of school practices are discussed.

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                      2021


                      Mitos y Realidades sobre la Inclusión de Migrantes en Aulas Chilenas: El Caso de la
                      Escritura

                      Myths and facts about the inclusion of immigrant students in Chilean classrooms: The case of writing

                      Autoras/es: Denisse Gelbert, Natalia Ávila, María Jesús Espinoza, Rosario Escribano, Javiera Figueroa y Carolina Castillo

                      The high immigration wave that Chile experienced in the last decade, has defied its largely segregated educational system. Even though Chile has subscribed the 4th Sustainable Development Goal to ensure an equitable, inclusive and quality education, the current educational structure as well as the lack of an inter-cultural educational policy, are obstacles to ensure the right to education for all. This article aims to provide evidence on the conditions under which immigrant students learn in Chile, by analyzing their performance in writing -a potential mediator (or obstacle) for schooling -, their learning barriers (beliefs, attitudes and teacher expectations), and socio-emotional wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that immigrant students are divided in two achievement groups, which face different barriers according to their country of origin. On the one hand, students from Haiti, Bolivia and Dominican Republic are more vulnerable. On the other hand, students from Peru, Venezuela and Colombia outperform their peers in writing, have higher levels of self-esteem and self-efficiency, and teachers have greater educational expectations for them. This evidence suggests the need to inquire the intersections between language and race related to discrimination and prejudice.

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                      2021


                      British Journal of Sociology of Education

                      School admission in Chile, new rules of the game, and the devaluation of Middle-class capitals

                      Autoras/es: Carrasco, Alejandro; Hernández, Macarena; Honey, Ngaire; Oyarzún, Juan de Dios

                      This paper illustrates the influence of a new national assignment system (NSAS) on Chilean middle-class advantage. This system was designed to increase educational equity by changing the previous school admission “rules” that were prejudicial against low-income students. We use Bourdieu’s conceptual tools, drawing on concepts of capitals and field, to analyse the influence of the new rules of the game on the value of middle-class capitals. To understand how the new rules shape middle-class families’ advantages, we link qualitative and quantitative analyses that empirically explore how families subjectively interpret the policy change and how objectively it shapes their access to desired schools. The qualitative phase shows that middle-class parents experience the NSAS as a risky new scenario. However, quantitative analysis shows the NSAS is associated with only a modest decrease in middle class-advantages. We illustrate the difficulty of transforming marketized educational systems, where previously privileged families react against equity-driven changes.

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                      2021


                      PSIHOLOGIJA

                      Life Satisfaction in childhood: Latin American Immigrant Children in Chile

                      Autoras/es: Urzua, Alfonso; Caqueo-Urizar, Alejandra; Alquinta, Barbara; Jeria, Roberto; Jorquera, Ricardo; Lau, Xiao Xiong

                      The goal of the current study was to evaluate life satisfaction in a sample of 300 immigrant children aged between 8 and 13 years old. Satisfaction in different domains and overall life, was evaluated using the General Domain Satisfaction Index and the Overall Life Satisfaction index, respectively. These instruments were also applied to a sample of 300 non-immigrant children of similar age. Statistically significant differences were found only in the 12–13 years group, where the mean scores for immigrants were lower than those for natives, on the domains of family and home, material goods, interpersonal relationships, health, and use of time. Additionally, immigrants had higher mean scores on the domains of area of residence, school, and personal satisfaction. These results allow us to reflect on the influence of society in all domains throughout their lives. Thus, these findings contribute toward the creation of policies that integrate migrants.

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                      2021


                      PLOS ONE

                      Perceived discrimination and contextual problems among children and adolescents in northern Chile

                      Autoras/es: Flores, Jerome; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Quintana, Lirna; Urzúa, Alfonso; Irarrázaval, Matías; Romer, Daniel

                      Discriminatory behaviors among inter-ethnic relations in schools have long been noted and studied, but there are several correlations between discriminatory behaviors and other constructs that need further investigation. As an example, the relation between perceived discrimination and contextual problems—which include family, school and peer problems—among children and adolescents in Latin America has received little attention from previous studies. Further, the mediating role of ethnic identification and collective self-esteem in this relation also needs to be considered as they could be proven as protective factors for discriminatory behavior and its outcomes. Therefore, this study aimed to, first, establish the relationship between perceived discrimination and contextual problems in inter-ethnic students aged 8–19 years living in Arica, Chile; and second, to identify the role that ethnic identification and collective self-esteem play within this relation. In order to investigate this matter, a cross-sectional study was carried out with 3700 students in 29 schools between the fourth year of primary education and the last year of secondary education, aged between 9–18 years, with 48.4% men and 51.6% women. The sample was divided into primary and secondary school groups. The scales utilized were the Everyday Discrimination Scale, Multi-Group Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised Scale, Collective Self-Esteem Scale and the dimensions of contextual family, school and peer problems, as well as the general index of contextual problems of the Child and Adolescent Assessment System. For data analysis, we tested a path analytic model at both the within and between levels to account for the relations between variables. In each group the models obtained an optimal fit. We found that perceived discrimination and ethnic identification were directly related to contextual problems (.23-.39), and collective self-esteem had only a mediating role. This study showed that strategized interventions focusing on ethnic identification and perceived discrimination should be utilized by schools to create a better developing environment.

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                      2021


                      JOURNAL OF IMMIGRANT AND MINORITY HEALTH

                      Mental Health in Immigrant Children and Adolescents in Northern Chile Mental Health in Immigrant Children and Adolescents

                      Autoras/es: Caqueo-Urizar, Alejandra; Atencio, Diego; Flores, Jerome; Narea, Marigen; Urzua, Alfonso; Irarrazaval, Matias

                      Approximately 1.251.225 foreign-born migrants reside in Chile, including 183.315 children. This study compares mental health indicators in immigrant and non-immigrant children to understand the mental health effects of migration. A cross-sectional study of 634 students from Chilean schools was conducted. Fifty percent of the students were immigrants. The System for the Evaluation of Children and Adolescents was used to evaluate mental health. No significant differences were observed in mental health indicators between immigrant and non-immigrant children. At both elementary and secondary levels, immigrant students had higher rates of contextual problems (family problems and problems with peers) and lower scores in integration and social consequence. Immigrant students in elementary schools scored lower in self-esteem. The higher rates of contextual problems in immigrant children should be addressed through structural changes in migration policies, such as providing support for employment of parents, welfare assistance, and access to health systems.

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                      2021


                      INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH

                      Effects of Resilience and Acculturation Stress on Integration and Social Competence of Migrant Children and Adolescents in Northern Chile

                      Autoras/es: Caqueo-Urizar, Alejandra; Urzua, Alfonso; Escobar-Soler, Carolang; Flores, Jerome; Mena-Chamorro, Patricio; Villalonga-Olives, Ester

                      Migration in Chile has increased exponentially in recent years, with education being one of the main focuses of attention in this cultural transformation. Integration and social competence in the migrant population are determined by several factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of resilience and acculturation stress on the levels of integration and social competence in migrant students in Northern Chile. In total, 292 school children of both genders aged 8 to 18, from the fourth grade to senior year of high school, participated in the investigation. A subscale of the Child and Adolescent Assessment System (Sistema de evaluación de niños y adolescentes SENA) was used to assess integration and social competence. Additionally, the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-12) and the Acculturation Stress Source Scale (FEAC) were used. The results show that integration and social competence have statistically significant and direct associations with resilience (p < 0.001) and indirect associations with acculturation stress (p = 0.009). Both constructs could be defined as protection and risk factors, respectively, and should be considered in educational contexts to favor adaptation in the integration of migrant children and adolescents.

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                      2021


                      CHILDREN AND YOUTH SERVICES REVIEW

                      Ethnic identity and life satisfaction in indigenous adolescents: The mediating role of resilience

                      Autoras/es: Caqueo-Urizar, Alejandra; Flores, Jerome; Mena-Chamorro, Patricio; Urzua, Alfonso; Irarrazaval, Matias

                      It seems that strengthening ethnic identity and resilience strategies could increase students’ life satisfaction. This is particularly relevant given the process of cultural integration that Aymara and non-Aymara students appear to be undergoing.

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                      2021


                      ETHNOGRAPHY AND EDUCATION

                      Normality and difference in education: relational encounters at school boundaries

                      Autoras/es: Garcia, Antonio; Haye, Andres; Matus, Claudia; Lopez, Veronica

                      Substantialist ethnographic approaches have been questioned for situating studies into stable groups and places, thereby creating rigid categories of diversity. In this study, we approached school normality through a relational ethnography, where the focus is on fields rather than places, and boundaries rather than bounded groups. Extended fieldwork was done at two schools in Santiago de Chile, where we embarked on a flexible journey to follow daily school life. We analysed situational encounters between the ethnographer and school actors at the school boundary as relational fields. Findings show that the institutional schools’ structures and norms seen at the boundary define the terrain where the relation between schools and differences is revealed. In this context, normality takes the form of resistance, nostalgia, and risk, defining how differences within the student body are constructed.

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                      2020


                      URBAN EDUCATION

                      The Legacy of Busing and Brown: How School Desegregation Experiences Shape Public Perceptions and Communities' School Diversity Priorities in the Resegregation Era

                      Autor: Honey, Ngaire; Smrekar, Claire

                      In a context that privileges neighborhood zoning and school choice over within-district busing, we examine urban residents’ perceptions of the benefits of racial diversity. We analyze public opinion trends by race and residents’ experience as a student in a district under court-ordered desegregation—Nashville, TN. We find racial differences regarding the values of proximity and school diversity that are moderated by experience as a school-age resident in a city under mandatory desegregation. We build upon literature showing long-term impacts of attending integrated schools, underscoring the influence of time, place, and experience in shaping perceptions of school diversity policies.

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                      2020


                      CHILD DEVELOPMENT

                      Family Risk and Externalizing Problems in Chilean Children: Mediation by Harsh Parenting and Emotional Support

                      Autor: Ugarte, Elisa; Narea, Marigen; Aldoney, Daniela; Weissman, David G.; Hastings, Paul D.

                      Latent class analysis and multigroup mediation were used with 8,860 families in Chile to identify risk groups varying in socioeconomic status, family structure, and maternal depression, to determine whether profiles differed in children’s development of externalizing problems (EP) from 35 to 61 months, and maternal parenting that predicted EP. Four groups were identified: one no‐risk profile and three risk profiles, impoverished and undereducated, depressed and impoverished, and father‐absent and impoverished. All classes differed in EP. Maternal emotional support and harsh parenting were differentially associated with the development of EP across the three risk groups, relative to the low‐risk group. Thus, specific constellations of adversities differentially predicted children’s EP and socialization processes mediating links between risk and EP. Implications are discussed.

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                      2020


                      Pedagogy, Culture & Society

                      Young people producing nation in Chilean schools

                      Autor: Martinez, César Augusto Ferrari; Espinoza Aros, Olga; Matus, Claudia Matus

                      This article presents an analysis of those curricular practices that reproduce dominant ideas about nation, which in turn facilitate the circulation of exclusionary ways of knowing about subjects and their communities in schools. In this study we use ethnographic knowledge produced in two Chilean schools where we conducted ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews, and curriculum document analysis. Our purpose was to trace essentialist discourses about the nation, as a homogeneous and predictable space, and give meaning to the problematic naturalised correspondence between subjects and spaces. We use Foucauldian discourse analysis to understand the production of rationalities that support the production of the ‘Chilean student’ as distinct from other students from other countries within the same school contexts. We conclude with some highlights on the productive force of performativity when reproducing power relations around nation discourses.

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                      2020


                      Cristal

                      On our com(mon)passions: Entanglements of research, teaching practices, and institutional lives Critical Studies in Teaching and Learning

                      Autor: García González, Macarena; Deszcz-Tryhubczak, Justyna

                      This article takes the form of a conversation between two children’s literature scholars who are collaborating on a conceptual and methodological exploration of New Materialism for their field, children’s literature studies. Here, they address how this exploration of post-humanist and feminist materialist texts has reshaped not only their research and methodological approaches but also their institutional lives in Higher Education. In this conversation, the authors relate to the propositions for slow scholarship and response-able pedagogies, reflecting on their teaching practices and the mentoring of master and PhD students in their different geographical and institutional background, among other dimensions of what they call their “institutional selves”. Departing from Olga Cielemęcka and Monika Rogowska-Stangret’s (2015) concept of “com(mon)passions”, the authors propose a deeper engagement in the entanglements of thinking/feeling, teaching/learning and critical/creative as continuums that may open space for (new) modes of knowledge production that resist the pressure of neoliberal and positivist academia.

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                      2020


                      Early Years

                      Access and equity policies in early childhood education: the case of Chile

                      Autor: Barco, Blanca; Carrasco Alejandro

                      Early Childhood Education (ECE) has been an area of interest because of its strong impact on the development of skills and benefits for learning at this age. However, participation in ECE programs is not equally distributed across social groups. It has been observed in different international contexts that there are factors such as availability, accessibility and affordability that hinder access for disadvantaged families. Chile has promoted policies to reduce these factors: greater availability of centers, priority selection in admission and free tuition. Through 56 semi-structured interviews from 7 centers, non-participant observations for six months in one of the centers and one year of fieldwork, we sought to understand access to ECE. The results show that, despite priority access policies, there are decisions on availability, implementation of accessibility and funding-oriented affordability practices that hinder access. This work provides new evidence and discusses the implications of the results for equitable access to ECE for disadvantaged families.

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                      2020


                      Ciencia y Educación

                      Articulación entre la educación media técnica profesional (EMTP) y la educación superior técnico profesional (ESTP): un análisis de regresiones logísticas estereotípicas

                      Autor: Ovalle, Claudia

                      The present study aims to determine whether technical media education – EMTP – has an impact on the likelihood of selecting higher technical education programs that require different levels of hard skills (abstract reasoning, quantitative reasoning, inferential and critical thinking) and soft skills (interpersonal relationships, language and communication, creativity). Stereotypical regressions were used to predict the odds of enrolling in technical school at a community college compared to another school. The probability of choosing 1 of 9 schools (Engineering, Tourism, Health, Construction, Information Technology and Telecommunications, Administration, Design, Communications) was calculated. The results of the full model indicate that EMTP students may be more likely to choose programs that require a higher level of hard skills (engineering) than soft skills.

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                      2020


                      COMPARE

                      Uncertain futures in forgotten places: a study on education policies and students’ subjectivities in rural contexts in Chile

                      Autor: Oyarzún, Juan de Dios

                      This article is based on research about the relations and tensions between secondary students’ subjectivities and dominant discourses as well as education policies in rural contexts in Chile (a well-known case of neoliberal policies in recent decades). Using a poststructural theoretical perspective, the qualitative study is focused on rural students’ subjectivities, through the analysis of their narratives about their lives, their perceptions on secondary schooling, and their educational/labour perspectives about the future. The findings reveal the tensions between the certainty and uncertainty of a future. Specifically, of an educational and work path by which students seek to continue or diverge from the paths taken by previous generations. Here, education policies fail to offer a real upgrade in their future educational and lived conditions or aspirations. Moreover, rural students respond to the neoliberal discourse in an active attempt to de-subjectivise themselves from historical trajectories of precariousness.

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                      2020


                      JOURNAL OF GLOBAL HEALTH

                      Centre-based care is a significant predictor of lower body mass index in early childhood: Longitudinal evidence from Chile

                      Autor: Allel, Kasim; Narea, Marigen; Undurraga, Eduardo A.

                      Background: The prevalence of childhood overweight has increased by approximately 50% in the past three decades, becoming a major public health concern worldwide. In Chile, an upper middle-income country, about 38% of children between two and four years of age are overweight, almost double the average in Latin America and the Caribbean. Various environmental and individual factors, and their interactions, affect childhood weight. Emerging evidence suggests childcare may also matter. Because the public provision of centre-based care is growing, childcare may be a useful policy tool to help prevent childhood overweight.
                      Methods: Using a nationally representative longitudinal survey of ~ 15 000 children in Chile (2010 and 2012), we estimated whether the type of child care (centre-based or maternal) a child attended at age 24 to 36 months was a significant predictor of the child’s sex-and-age-specific body-mass-index (BMI) at age 36-48 months. We restricted our sample to children in full-time maternal care at baseline (12-24 months of age; n = 1273), but tested the robustness of results with the full sample. We compared children in centre-based care and in maternal care using difference-in-difference estimators and propensity score matching, and adjusted our estimates using child, family, and neighborhood characteristics.
                      Results: Children attending centre-based care had 0.27 SD lower BMI than children in maternal care at follow-up (P < 0.05). We found suggestive evidence this association may be modulated by the child’s socioeconomic status and by how frequently the child watched television: we found smaller BMI changes for children at the bottom 80% of socioeconomic status (P < 0.05) and also for children who frequently watched television (P < 0.10). Our results were robust to various model specifications.
                      Conclusions: Our findings suggest centre-based care programs, with adequate regulation and enforcement, may be a useful support to help curb the early childhood overweight epidemic, in addition to known effects in labor supply and child development.

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                      2020


                      FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY

                      Locus of Control, Self-Control, and Gender as Predictors of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children and Adolescents in Northern Chile

                      Autor: Flores, Jerome; Caqueo-Urizar, Alejandra; Ramirez, Cristian; Arancio, Giaela; Cofre, Juan Pablo

                      Background: Both the control that people attribute to themselves over a situation (locus of control) and the control they attribute to themselves (self-control) have been proposed as aspects that can have an effect on internalizing problems in young people. There is little evidence of this relationship in the infantile-juvenile population in Latin America.
                      Objective: To establish whether there is a significant predictive relationship of locus of control and self-control over internalizing and externalizing problems in the infantile-juvenile population, both at a general level and dimension-specific. These include depression, anxiety, social anxiety, somatic complaints, and post-traumatic stress.
                      Methods: A cross-sectional-correlational study was carried out to establish if there was a possible predictive relationship in 3,664 schoolchildren of both primary (4th–6th grade) and secondary (7th–12th grade) in northern Chile, using the short version of the Nowicki-Strickland scale to measure locus of control, the Tangney scale to measure self-control, and the Child and Adolescent Evaluation System (SENA) to measure the dimensions of internalized problems.
                      Hypotheses: (1) Greater self-control is associated with lower levels of internalizing and externalizing problems. (2) Higher external locus of control is associated with higher levels of internalizing and externalizing problems. (3) Self-control, locus of control, and gender can together significantly predict each of the internalizing and externalizing problems.
                      Results: Evidence is found to support the first two hypotheses fully and partially support the third, since gender did not function as a predictor in all models.
                      Conclusion: The results confirm previous international research in that both locus of control and self-control appear to have a significant influence on internalizing and externalizing problems. Implications for mental health promotion in this population are discussed.

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                      2020


                      TERAPIA PSICOLÓGICA

                      Problemas de regulación emocional y salud mental en adolescentes del norte de Chile

                      Autor: Caqueo, Alejandra; Mena, Patricio; Flores, Jerome; Narea, Marigen; Irarrázabal, Matías

                      El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la asociación entre los problemas de regulación emocional e indicadores de salud mental en adolescentes de la ciudad Arica al Norte de Chile, además de describir y comparar los niveles de problemas interiorizados y exteriorizados entre hombres y mujeres. Participaron 2331 estudiantes de 11 a 20 años provenientes de establecimientos educacionales. Para medir los problemas de regulación emocional y los indicadores de salud mental, se utilizó el Sistema de Evaluación de Niños y Adolescentes (SENA). Los resultados muestran que los problemas de regulación emocional poseen efectos grandes y significativos sobre los problemas interiorizados y exteriorizados. Asimismo, se observó que las mujeres presentan mayor sintomatología depresiva, ansiosa, de ansiedad social y problemas de regulación emocional que los hombres. Pareciera ser que los adolescentes que manifiestan problemas para regular sus emociones son más vulnerables a experimentar estados de ánimos disfóricos, preocupaciones recurrentes o comportamientos disruptivos.

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                      2020


                      UNIVERSITAS PSYCHOLOGICA

                      Sources of Acculturation Stress in Childhood and Adolescence. Measuring Instrument Proposal FEAC-IA

                      Autor: Urzua, Alfonso; Caqueo-Urizar, Alejandra; Flores, Jerome

                      El estrés por aculturación ha sido asociado fuertemente al surgimiento de problemas en la salud de las personas, principalmente en la salud mental. Pese a su importancia como factor de riesgo, su estudio se ha realizado mayoritariamente en población adulta, siendo menor la investigación realizada al respecto en población infantil y adolescente. En esta investigación, se evalúan las propiedades psicométricas del FEAC-IA, cuestionario destinado a evaluar las fuentes de estrés por aculturación. Se recogieron datos de 401 escolares entre 8 a 18 años (M = 12.4; K = 2.5). Se realizaron análisis de confiabilidad y de los indicadores de bondad de ajuste para la evaluación de modelos de la estructura factorial, mediante análisis de ecuaciones estructurales exploratorias (MEEE) y análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC). El cuestionario presenta buenos indicadores de bondad de ajuste para un modelo trifactorial: añoranza y diferencias con el país de origen, adaptación en la escuela, familia y relación con los pares y experiencias de discriminación (CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.976; RMSEA = 0.052). La escala propuesta puede constituirse en un aporte importante para recoger insumos en población migrante infanto-juvenil sobre las fuentes de estrés, que permitan elaborar planes específicos de intervención.

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                      2020


                      IRCL, International Research in Children’s Literature

                      New Materialist Openings for Children's Literature Studies

                      Autor: García-González, Macarena; Deszcz-Tryhubczak, Justyna

                      New materialist and posthuman thinking denote a range of approaches that have in common a focus on materialities as a turn against the persistence of Cartesian dualisms (mind/body, subject/object, nature/culture, for example). In this article, we explore how the feminist new materialism of Donna Haraway, Karen Barad, and Rosi Braidotti, among others, may provide openings to research in our field, especially when considering what is recurrently taken up as one of its central problems: the positioning of the child in a world ruled by adults. We first discuss recent approaches in children’s literature studies that show interest in these theories and then use these to offer a toolbox of terms and notions-from ethico-onto-epistemology to diffraction-that may open possibilities for research in more-than-human environments. A new climate has been shifting epistemological and ontological assumptions across research disciplines since the beginning of the twenty-first century. In the humanities and social sciences, posthumanist and new materialist philosophies are providing paradigms that counter the emphasis on language and discourse characteristic of poststructuralism (Coole and Frost 3). In this article, we explore how a focus on matter provides openings for research in our field, as it forces us to rethink adult-child relationalities-with a blurring of the adult/child binary-and to reimagine critical interpretation with an attention to materialities that exceed the representational paradigm. This move to acknowledge matter interrogates the anthropocentric narrative that has underpinned our view of humans-in-the-world since the Enlightenment, a view that posits humans as makers of the world and the International Research in Children’s Literature 13.1 (2020): 45-60 Edinburgh University Press.

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                      2020


                      DISCOURSE-STUDIES IN THE CULTURAL POLITICS OF EDUCATION

                      Becoming abject: testing the limits and borders of reading mediation

                      Autor: Veliz, Soledad; Garcia-Gonzalez, Macarena

                      Reading mediation is a concept used in Latin America and Spain, referring to the nurturing role played by adults in forging relationships between children and books. In this article, we conceptualize reading mediation as a ‘technology of affect’. We propose ‘mediation-as-usual’, a normative becoming of this technology, tasked with producing categories and identities regarding readers. Within this technology, adults are produced as empathetic, caring, and providers of safe spaces for reading. We report on literary encounters at a school in Santiago, Chile, with a ‘challenging’ picturebook. We were involved in the emergence of what we term ‘abject mediation’, a figuration that produces the limits and boundaries of mediation-as-usual, and, we argue, has transformative potential. However, this is an ephemeral figuration, as reterritorialization works to assimilate the border elements, actualizing mediation-as-usual. We discuss how these figurations may help to question normative ways of producing readers.

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                      2020


                      Ethnography and Education

                      Educational policies and professional identities: the case of Chilean special educational needs (SEN) teachers under new regulations for SEN student inclusion in mainstream schools

                      Autor: Palacios, Rosario; Larrazabal, Sofía; Berwart, Rocío

                      This article explores the professional identities of SEN teachers as related to new Chilean policies for educational inclusion. It focuses on the way in which professional identities are transformed by the new educational setting for special education. Drawing on ethnographical observation in four schools in Santiago, Chile we describe and analyse the main tensions present in SEN teachers’ everyday experiences building from a dialogue between their stories and their rule constrained practices. By doing so, we show how teachers’ professional identities are the product of a deep negotiation with themselves in which their understanding of inclusion, special educational needs and the new policy are at the heart of their inquiry.

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                      2020


                      Teaching and Teacher Education

                      The centrality of immigrant students within teacher-student interaction networks: A relational approach to educational inclusion

                      Autor: Ortega, Lorena; Boda, Zsófia; Treviño, Ernesto; Arriagada, Verónica; Gelber, Denisse; Escribano, María del Rosario

                      The conceptualizations of educational inclusion, previously restricted to securing access to formal education, recently highlight the promotion of equitable social and academic relations as well. This study investigates the inclusion of students with immigrant background within their class’ teacher-student interaction networks, while distinguishing by the initiator and content of interactions. Data from 38 Chilean mathematics teachers/classrooms and 933 seventh graders were collected and analyzed using systematic observation, social network visualization and multilevel models. Results show that the inclusion of students depends significantly on their country of origin. There is also significant variation in teacher-immigrant student interactions across classrooms.

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                      2020


                      Infancia y Aprendizaje

                      The inclusion of girls in Chilean mathematics classrooms: gender bias in teacher-student interaction networks / La inclusión de las niñas en las aulas de matemáticas chilenas: sesgo de género en las redes de interacciones profesor-estudiante

                      Autor: Ortega, Lorena; Treviño, Ernesto; Gelber, Denisse

                      In Chile, national and international standardized tests have revealed major differences in mathematics achievement in favor of boys. This study sought to determine whether gender differences exist in classroom interactions and examined the relationship between teachers’ beliefs and their pedagogical practices. Forty 7th grade mathematics lessons taught in Chilean public schools by 20 educators selected via convenience sampling were video-taped. Pedagogical interactions were coded by gender and a self-report questionnaire on beliefs was administered to the teachers. Descriptive analyses were conducted. The Wilcoxon test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for group comparisons. It was observed that teachers ask boys significantly more questions requiring complex cognitive processes and provide more feedback to boys, and also that boys participate significantly more in class than girls. There are no differences between male and female teachers regarding these practices. In addition, preliminary evidence was found of a concordance between beliefs and practices in teachers who reported explicit gender stereotypes associated with mathematics learning.

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                      2020


                      Economics of Education Review

                      School choice and parents’ preferences for school attributes in Chile

                      Autor: Hofflinger, Alvaro; Gelber, Denisse; Tellez Cañas, Santiago

                      A key assumption of school choice and competition policies is that parents’ most important (if not only) priority when choosing a school is its quality. However, evidence about which of a school’s attributes really drives parental choice is still scarce. We use census data from a parent questionnaire in Chile, a country with a national school choice and competition system, to describe the attributes most commonly considered by parents when choosing a school, and to assess how the probability of prioritizing those attributes varies with the parents’ socioeconomic characteristics, while controlling for other characteristics of the family. We find that parents choosing a school prioritize its proximity, its quality, and whether it provides religious education. Furthermore, the probability of parents prioritizing proximity is higher for parents of low socioeconomic status, while the probability of them prioritizing quality and religious education is higher for parents of high socioeconomic status. These findings show that only advantaged families choose schools based on their quality, and therefore school choice and competition policies may offer a limited benefit for disadvantaged pupils, possibly maintaining or reinforcing socioeconomic segregation in the education system.

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                      2020


                      International Journal of Educational Development

                      How much does the quality of teaching vary at under-performing schools? Evidence from classroom observations in Chile

                      Autor: Escribano, Rosario; Treviño, Ernesto; Nussbaum, Miguel; Torres, David; Carrasco, Diego

                      The present study aims to determine how much the quality of teaching varies among and within under-performing schools. 1266 classroom observations were conducted in 260 schools across Chile. An index of teaching quality was constructed to analyze its variance. It was found that only 4.8% of the variance is explained by the teacher’s school. This suggests that the variance in the quality of teaching is not among schools, but within teachers from the same school. These results are important for public policy, especially in the field of professional development, as they suggest that best practices can be found at under-performing schools.

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                      2020


                      BMC Psychiatry

                      Psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in a middle-income Latin American country

                      Autor: Caqueo-Urízar, A., Flores, J., Escobar, C. et al.

                      Results In this student population, depression, anxiety, and behavioral disorders were the main mental health problems identified, and indicators revealed a progressive increase in cases over the years, coinciding with the global epidemiological scenario. Males showed a greater presence of externalizing behaviors related to mental health problems associated with aggression and defiant behavior. However, females showed the highest number of mental health issues overall, especially regarding problems related to internalization. There are significant differences between school types.
                      Conclusions Our sample population analysis indicates that early intervention is necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of youth, with the goal of reducing the probability that psychiatric disorders will be prolonged, evolving, and worsening in adulthood.

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                      2020


                      Early Childhood Research Quarterly

                      Maternal and non-maternal care in infancy and later child cognitive, language and motor development in Chile: Does type of care matter?

                      Autor: Narea, Marigen; Toppelberg, Claudio; Irarrázabal, Matías; Xu, Jiali

                      Growing numbers of children across the world start non-maternal care in the first year of life. However, few studies have described how different infant care experiences may relate to later child cognitive, language and motor functioning, and most analyses have focused on samples from historically industrialized regions. Cognitive, language and motor subscores (TEPSI) and receptive vocabulary scores (TVIP) obtained through direct testing of 24-to-48-month-old children (n = 7564) from the Chilean Longitudinal Survey of Early Childhood were compared based on retrospective reports of care received as infants. Children who, as infants, had received one of four types of non-maternal care — center-based, grandparent, other relative, and non-relative care — were compared to those who had exclusively experienced maternal care (71.8%). Series of regressions with propensity score models (PSM) were performed. Compared to maternal care, children in center-based care and grandparent care had higher total TEPSI scores (d = .19, p < 0.05) (d = .19, p < 0.01) and TEPSI language subscores (d = .20, p < 0.05) (d = .20, p < 0.01), while those in grandparent care also had higher TEPSI motor subscores (d = .08, p < 0.05). In contrast, children in non-relative care had lower TVIP receptive vocabulary scores (d = −.38, p < 0.01). These findings contribute to the debate on national policies supporting specific types of non-maternal care and their impact on child development.

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                      2019


                      Journal of School Psychology

                      Classroom ability composition and the role of academic performance and school misconduct in the formation of academic and friendship networks

                      Autor: Palacios, Diego; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Villalobos, Cristóbal; Treviño, Ernesto; Berger, Christian; Huisman, Mark; Veenstra, René

                      This paper examined the association between friendship and academic networks and how the connections these networks have with academic performance and school misconduct differ when comparing three types of classrooms where students were grouped based on their academic ability (i.e., high-, low-, and mixed-ability). The sample was composed of 528 seventh to ninth graders (Mag = 15; 64.1% girls) from 12 classrooms (four in each category of ability grouping) across two waves in five schools in Chile. The effects of academic performance and school misconduct on receiving academic and friendship nominations were examined, as well as the interplay between academic and friendship relationships. Furthermore, the extent to which similarity in adolescents’ academic performance and school misconduct contributed to the formation and maintenance of academic and friendship relationships was examined. Sex, socioeconomic status, and structural network features were also taken into account. Longitudinal social network analyses (RSiena) indicated that (1) in high-ability classrooms students chose high-achieving peers as academic partners; (2) in high-ability classrooms students avoided deviant peers (i.e., those high in school misconduct) as academic partners; and (3) academic relationships led to friendships, and vice versa, in both high- and low-ability classrooms. Whereas the interplay of friendship and academic relationships was similar in high- and low-ability classrooms, the formation and maintenance of academic networks unfolded differently in these two types of classrooms.

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                      2019


                      Perspectiva Educacional

                      FROM WORDS TO ACTION: INCLUSIVE BELIEFS AND PRACTICES IN SCHOOLS AND CLASSROOMS IN SANTIAGO

                      Autor: Gelber, Denisse; Trevino, Ernesto; Gonzalez, Alonso; Escribano, Rosario; Ortega, Lorena

                      This research describes the beliefs of school principals, mathematics teachers and special education teachers regarding diversity in students, as well the instructional practices they apply to promote inclusion in public schools in Santiago. We conclude that principals and teachers have five perspectives about inclusion (integration, theoretical, social, practical and pedagogical). Moreover, teachers with a practical /pedagogical perspective tend to: provide more emotional support to their students, incorporate cultural aspects of students in math tasks, promote different strategies for solving math problems, and collaborate more with special education teachers to prepare math lessons.of success.

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                      2019


                      Frontiers in Psychology

                      Executive Functions Can Be Improved in Preschoolers Through Systematic Playing in Educational Settings: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study

                      Autor: Rosas, Ricardo; Espinoza, Victoria; Porflitt, Felipe; Ceric, Francisco

                      This study aimed to test the impact of play on the development of executive functions (EFs) in preschoolers. Thirty-two games were designed to be collectively played in groups by 70 children, in their regular classes. The games were specifically designed to promote the development of the three components of EFs: inhibition (behavioral or cognitive), working memory, and cognitive flexibility. The games focused on each function were of three types: playground games, expression games, and classroom games. Sixty 45 min play sessions were held on consecutive days for 3 months, always in the first period. The sessions were guided by two members of the research team, assisted by the four teachers of the participating classes. The intervention was carried out in two highly socially vulnerable schools in the city of Santiago de Chile. Four classes were studied in total: two experimental groups and two controls. The classes were selected using a questionnaire on teacher-student interaction quality and an age homogeneity criterion. EFs were evaluated using the Hearts and Flowers task at three points: before the intervention (T1), immediately after the end of the intervention (T2), and 8 months after the end of the intervention (T3). The results show a significant difference in the growth of EFs by comparing the experimental and control groups (p = 0.04) between T1 and T3. They also reveal a strong correlation between EFs measures at T1 and mathematics performance at T3. These results are discussed within the context of the guidelines proposed by Diamond and Ling (2016) and Barnett (2011) regarding what an EFs promotion program needs to be considered effective and high quality. The program presented in this study meets most of the requisites mentioned by the authors, which proves that following these guidelines guarantees a high probability of success.

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                      2019


                      Perspectiva Educacional

                      Initial differences in development of access to written language according to socioeconomic status

                      Autor: Espinoza, Victoria; Rosas, Ricardo

                      El propósito de esta investigación fue analizar las diferencias existentes en el desarrollo inicial de los precursores del lenguaje escrito en niños de distinto nivel socioeconómico (NSE). Se evaluó el desempeño de 81 niños de NSE bajo y 76 niños de NSE alto en precursores de la lectura. Se observaron diferencias significativas, favorables a los estudiantes de NSE alto en todas las habilidades evaluadas, sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias en la magnitud de éstas según el precursor evaluado. Las mayores brechas se pudieron ver en aquellas habilidades relacionadas principalmente con la comprensión y la fluidez lectora, y las brechas de menor magnitud se manifestaron respecto de los precursores relacionados con la decodificación. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de implementar estrategias didácticas que permitan a la escuela compensar estas diferencias de ingreso, considerando los perfiles iniciales de desarrollo de los distintos grupos de estudiantes.of success.

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                      2019


                      Pensamiento Educativo. Revista de Investigación Educacional Latinoamericana

                      Adapting a Technology Tool to Assess Executive Functions in Visually Impaired Children: Does Changing Modality Affect Their Ability to Discriminate?

                      Autor: Santa Cruz, Catalina

                      La prueba Gatos y Perros versión auditiva corresponde a una adaptación de la misma prueba que se presenta en modalidad visual para la evaluación de las funciones ejecutivas de niños. La versión auditiva fue creada con el objetivo de evaluar a niños preescolares que presentan discapacidad visual moderada y profunda y, eventualmente, a alumnos con desarrollo típico. Los análisis indican que la nueva prueba no es equivalente a la versión estandarizada. El análisis específico demuestra que la prueba discrimina en todas sus fases el rendimiento entre alumnos con discapacidad visual y desarrollo típico y que esta tendencia se ve reforzada por el mismo resultado obtenido en una tercera prueba (Retención de dígitos). Se propone utilizar la versión auditiva con la población con discapacidad visual y considerar su aplicación en sujetos de mayor edad para evitar el efecto suelo.

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                      2019


                      Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Inclusiva

                      ¿Qué Podemos Aprender de los Sistemas Educativos de Chile, España y Finlandia en el Marco de la Declaración de Salamanca?

                      Autor: Rosas, Ricardo; Staig, James; Lazcano, Guillermo; Palacios, Rosario; Espinoza, Victoria; Aro, Mikko; Imbernón, Candelaria

                      El presente artículo compara los sistemas de Educación Especial de Chile, España y Finlandia, desde la perspectiva de la Declaración de Salamanca para las Necesidades Educativas Especiales (NEE). Tanto el contexto general de sus sistemas educativos como su orientación epistemológica respecto de la Educación Especial, los marcos regulatorios de cada sistema, los procedimientos de detección y derivación de niños con NEE, y la estructura de los servicios de atención a la diversidad, dialogan de manera particular con los compromisos adquiridos en 1994. Se muestran las principales diferencias entre los sistemas, destacando la gran variabilidad respecto de la definición de NEE y sus estrategias de inclusión de estudiantes de NEE al sistema escolar. Los resultados de esta investigación muestran diferencias importantes en el logro de los objetivos planteados por la declaración, en los tres países estudiados, estando Chile aún muy lejos de contar con un sistema de atención a la diversidad verdaderamente inclusivo. Los desafíos pendientes para nuestro país son que no cuenta con un marco regulatorio integrado para la atención a la diversidad; cuenta con provisión de recursos humanos y tecnológicos muy limitados para estudiantes con NEE, y tiene una insuficiente cobertura de las NEE en la formación inicial docente.

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                      2019


                      Pedagogy, Culture & Society

                      Think difference differently? Knowing/becoming/doing with picturebooks

                      Autores: García-González, Macarena; Véliz, Soledad; Matus, Claudia

                      In this article, we explore ways in which arts-based approaches may be deployed to educate ways of knowing/becoming/doing difference differently, particularly when issues of racism and xenophobia come to the front. We present a school research intervention with students and in-service teachers in Santiago, Chile. In this study, we use The Island, a picturebook that produces a narrative of exclusion and fear, instead of promoting tolerance and conviviality. From a new materialist approach, we show engagements or makings of children and adults, sketching out how they defy simplistic ways of thinking and feeling about normative difference. We frame this study as a diffractive research-intervention in which the intertwined and productive relation ‘books and readers’ allow us to problematize rather than simplify what knowing/becoming/doing with arts may do to the production of difference within school contexts.

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                      2019


                      Magis

                      Difference and normality: Ethnographic production and intervention in schools

                      Autor: Matus, Claudia; Guerrero-Morales P.; Rojas-Lasch C.; Herraz-Mardones P.C.; Sanyal-Tudela A.

                      En este artículo se presenta un circuito de indagación etnográfica y de intervención producido en una investigación entre 2013 y 2015 en cinco escuelas en Santiago de Chile, cuyo propósito fue documentar la producción de la normalidad y la diferencia en espacios escolares. Los marcos teóricos y metodológicos contestan la pregunta de cómo se hace etnografía e intervención cuando la pregunta de investigación se sitúa desde la producción de la normalidad. Los resultados muestran cómo los procesos culturales y sociales neutralizados son un espacio productivo para la reflexión necesaria para transformar las prácticas docentes.

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                      2019


                      Athenea Digital

                      Subjetivaciones Farmacológicas: Déficit Atencional, Psicoestimulantes y Prácticas Escolares en Dos Colegios de Santiago, Chile

                      Autor: Rojas Navarro, Sebastián

                      Este artículo propone un abordaje semiótico-material para pensar con el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención/Hiperactividad (TDAH) y el uso de psicoestimulantes. A partir de una etnografía de las prácticas acontecidas en dos colegios de Santiago, sostenemos que una aproximación prágmatica, relacional y posthumanista abre al análisis otros procesos y dinámicas respecto a como niños y niñas diagnósticadas, medicamentos, compañeras, profesores y otros actores humanos y no-humanos interactuan y se co-afectan, enactando versiones singulares del diagnóstico y de los efectos de la medicación. Así, proponemos resituar la discusión para evitar binarismos que han coactado la reflexión respecto a cómo niños y niñas afectan y son afectados por los saberes biomédicos y las prácticas “psi”. Particularmente, cuestionamos que subjetividad y psicofármacos son esencialmente agentes antagónicos, ya que en la práctica ambos co-existen, se co-afectan, y pueden producir elementos creativos y emergentes, tal como nuestro análisis de las notas de campo y relatos etnográficos revela.

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                      2019


                      Springer

                      Ethnography and Education Policy: A Critical Analysis of Normalcy and Difference in Schools

                      Autor: Matus, Claudia

                      This book addresses the relationship between the production of social problems in educational policy, the research practices required to inform policy, and the daily production of normalcies and differences in school contexts. It reports on the opportunities and consequences for policy, research, and practice when normalcy is stigmatized at the same level as difference. The book employs a critical analysis combining queer, feminist, and post-representational theories to understand the implications of dominant ways of understanding the division between normal and different subjectivities and how they reiterate structures of inequality in schools.

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                      2019


                      Universitas psychologica

                      Fuentes de estrés por aculturación en la infancia y adolescencia. Propuesta del instrumento de medición FEAC-IA

                      Autores: Urzúa, A., Caqueo Urízar, A., Flores Jara, J

                      El estrés por aculturación ha sido asociado fuertemente al surgimiento de problemas en la salud de las personas, principalmente en la salud mental. Pese a su importancia como factor de riesgo, su estudio se ha realizado mayoritariamente en población adulta, siendo menor la investigación realizada al respecto en población infantil y adolescente. En esta investigación, se evalúan las propiedades psicométricas del FEAC-IA, cuestionario destinado a evaluar las fuentes de estrés por aculturación. Se recogieron datos de 401 escolares entre 8 a 18 años (M = 12.4; K = 2.5). Se realizaron análisis de confiabilidad y de los indicadores de bondad de ajuste para la evaluación de modelos de la estructura factorial, mediante análisis de ecuaciones estructurales exploratorias (MEEE) y análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC). El cuestionario presenta buenos indicadores de bondad de ajuste para un modelo trifactorial: añoranza y diferencias con el país de origen, adaptación en la escuela, familia y relación con los pares y experiencias de discriminación (CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.976; RMSEA = 0.052). La escala propuesta puede constituirse en un aporte importante para recoger insumos en población migrante infanto-juvenil sobre las fuentes de estrés, que permitan elaborar planes específicos de intervención.

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                      2019


                      LÍMITE Revista Interdisciplinaria De Filosofía Y Psicología

                      Validación de la escala de involucramiento religioso universal age i-e 12 en escolares entre 8 y 19 años del norte de Chile

                      Autores: Flores, Jerome; Caqueo, Alejandra; Hernández, P; Vargas, F

                      La escala Age Universal ha sido ampliamente utilizada como parte de las versiones derivadas de la escala original de involucramiento religioso de Allport y Ros (1967) en población adolescente y adulta. No obstante, no ha sido validada exhaustivamente y en Latinoamérica no cuenta con ningún tipo de validación en población infanto-juvenil. Es relevante contar con una escala que permita medir este constructo en población infanto-juvenil dada la evidencia favorable de involucramiento religiosos sobre variables de salud mental y bienestar en esta población. Objetivo: validar la escala Age-Universal I-E 12 en población infanto-juvenil en Chile. Método: Se realiza un estudio trasversal para para comprobar las propiedades psicométricas de la escala en escolares entre 8 y 19 años del norte de Chile. Se utiliza una muestra de 3857 estudiantes de ambos sexos, que incluye colegios de diferente dependencia. Los datos se analizan mediante ESEM y CFA. Resultados: A diferencia de la dimensionalidad frecuentemente encontrada en universitarios, de tres factores, en el presente estudio se obtiene una estructura bifactorial donde se combina la dimensión intrínseca con la extrínseca personal. Los indicadores de bondad de ajuste son adecuados (RMSEA = ,062; CFI = .987; TLI = .984). La fiabilidad de la escala total es .91, en tanto que su dimensión intrínseca combinada es de .91 y su dimensión extrínseca social es de .81. siendo adecuada. Conclusión: La escala cuenta con propiedades psicométricas adecuadas para ser utilizada en Chile y probablemente en Latinoamérica.

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                      2019


                      TERAPIA PSICOLÓGICA 2019

                      Discriminación percibida en escolares migrantes en el Norte de Chile

                      Autores: Caqueo, Alejandra; Flores, Jerome; Irarrázabal, Matías; Loo, Ninoska; Páez, Jacqueline; Sepúlveda, Geraldy

                      La migración en Chile ha trascendido enormemente, siendo la educación uno de los principales focos de atención en miras de la transformación. El objetivo de este estudio es describir la discriminación percibida por escolares migrantes de la ciudad de Arica al Norte de Chile, analizando además la relación entre esta última y el estrés por aculturación. Participaron 678 estudiantes de ambos sexos entre Cuarto Básico a Cuarto Medio, entre los 8 y 19 años. Se utilizó la Escala de Discriminación en la Vida Cotidiana (EDS) y la Escala de fuentes de estrés por aculturación (FEAC). Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la discriminación percibida entre escolares migrantes y no migrantes con una puntuación más alta en los migrantes en todas las edades. Se observa también una relación significativa entre discriminación percibida y estrés por aculturación. Se discuten los resultados y sus implicaciones, para el mejoramiento políticas públicas en el ámbito escolar.

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                      2019


                      EARLY EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT

                      Center-Based Care in Toddlerhood and Child Cognitive Outcomes in Chile: The Moderating Role of Family Socio-Economic Status

                      Autor: Narea, Marigen; Allel, Kasim; Arriagada, Veronica

                      There is little evidence regarding the benefits of early center-based care attendance (before three years old) for child development and most studies have focused on developed countries. Addressing this gap, this study examines the relationship between center-based care attendance during toddler years and children’s cognitive outcomes. Research Findings: Data used for this study came from the first and second wave of the Longitudinal Survey of Early Childhood (ELPI, 2010 and 2012). The nationally representative sample was 1,544 children aged 12 to 24 months in 2010, who received full-time home care during this period. Propensity score matching (PSM) and difference-in-differences techniques were used in the study. Compared to those in full-time home care, children who attended center-based care from the age of 24 months had higher cognitive scores in the endline (they were measured at some point between 36 and 48 months old). Children in center-based care scored higher on cognitive skills compared to children who were in full-time home care, according to the Child Development and Cognitive Evaluation Test (Test de Aprendizaje y Desarrollo Infantil, TADI) and the Battelle test (d = .21 p < .01 and d = .22 p < .01, respectively). However, we observed that children in low-income households benefited less from early center-based care attendance. Practice or Policy: These findings suggest that Chilean national policies supporting increased center-based care coverage in early years are a step in the right direction, but more work focused on helping disadvantaged children is needed.

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                      2019


                      STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING

                      Household Determinants of Teen Marriage: Sister Effects Across Four Low- and Middle-Income Countries

                      Autores: Maria Pesando, Luca; Abuthele, Alejandra

                      This article investigates the household determinants of teen marriage in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam using data from the international Young Lives study tracking a cohort of children from the ages of 8–19 over a 15-year period. First, we offer a descriptive and comparative overviewof the prevalence of teen marriage among girls in geographically selected areas of the four countries, together with their sociodemographic determinants. Second, we place a specific focus on the role of gender and sibling sex-composition in shaping the probability of getting married by age 19. Drawing on the significant cross country heterogeneity in household context, direction of marriage payments, and prevalence of arranged marriage, we test hypotheses relating to the availability of economic resources within the household and cultural norms surrounding the order and timing of marriage. We show that in Ethiopia, India, and Vietnam, presence and number of older sisters in the household are associated with a 30–50 percent lower likelihood of teen marriage, while the association is null in Peru. Also, we show that having a girl as next-youngest sibling does not significantly affect girls’ likelihood of experiencing teen marriage, except in Ethiopia. Our results combined support theories of family-level resource constraints over sibling rivalry hypotheses. Our findings enrich and complement existing evidence on the role of sibling sex-composition on adolescent outcomes in low- and middle-income countries.

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                      2019


                      Educational Review

                      The private in the privatisation of schools: the case of Chile

                      Autores: Carrasco, Alejandro; Gunter, HM.

                      Privatisation of public services education is a key feature of the Global Education Reform Movement (GERM), where policy convictions, ideas, and strategies are integral to the “spreading and mutating” of reforms. While there are important projects that seek to describe and explain major changes to restructuring, ownership and funding, what has not been given sufficient attention is the role of the private in privatisation. By private, we mean the decisions and choices regarding educational services of (a) individuals and families and (b) school providers, and how issues that have traditionally been in the public domain (e.g. through government systems, on the agendas of local community/municipal schools) are no longer there (e.g. government systems have been dismantled and replaced with new providers, and local community/municipal schools either no longer exist or provide “safety nets” for those who fail in the market). What we intend focusing on is depoliticised privatism, where the role of the private in the supply and demand for school places illuminates a shift in the identification and addressing of educational matters from the politicised public to the depoliticised private domain. We report specifically on intellectual and empirical work regarding how supply and demand works in the provision of education services in Chile, particularly by looking at how those who own and work in schools view current reforms.

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                      2019


                      EPAA/AAPE

                      La investigación en educación superior en Chile: Una perspectiva sobre patrones de publicación y temas emergentes

                      Autor: Muñoz-García, Ana Luisa; Queupil, Juan Pablo; Bernasconi, Andrés; Véliz, Daniela

                      In the context of a recent increase in the Chilean production of knowledge within the field of higher education, this article reveals some trends exhibited by this production, as well as the main research topics. With this aim, we examine the number and institutional affiliations of research grants in the area, provide a bibliometric analysis of Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus publications, and present a content analysis of works indexed in WoS and Scopus published from 2005 to 2015. Results show a clear growth pattern, both in research grants and articles published. Research capacities in the field appear to be distributed across several universities in Chile, and to involve scholars based not only in schools of education, but also those in several other academic units in diverse disciplinary and professional domains. Themes emerging from the content analysis can be grouped in four main research lines: curriculum, teaching and learning; trajectories and experiences of students; the academic profession; and higher education policy.

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                      2019


                      SOPHIA

                      Preparación para la Universidad: Un modelo conceptual de las habilidades, conocimientos y comportamientos que se deben adquirir en la Educación Secundaria

                      Autor: Ovalle, Claudia

                      La preparación para la universidad (College and Career Readiness ó CCR) es un modelo educativo que determina las habilidades, comportamientos y los conocimientos que los estudiantes bachilleres requieren para poder tener éxito en el nivel educativo superior o en el trabajo. En Colombia hay pocos estudios relacionados con preparación para la Universidad por lo que este artículo pretende presentar el modelo conceptual, la investigación reciente en el campo y temas para una agenda de investigación que incorpore datos de muestras de estudiantes colombianos

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                      2019


                      Mendive

                      Las notas de la Enseñanza Media como predictor del desempeño estudiantil en la Educación Superior Técnico Profesional

                      Autor: Ovalle, Claudia

                      En el contexto actual donde se busca establecer mecanismos de admisión y selección a la educación superior en Chile se ha propuesto que las medidas de tipo académico puedan servir el propósito de seleccionar estudiantes para los estudios técnicos superiores. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar si las notas de la Enseñanza Media (NEM) están relacionadas con el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes en el primer año de Educación Superior Técnica. Se emplearon correlaciones bivariadas y modelos de regresión por mínimos cuadrados (OLS) controlando por variables del individuo y de la escuela para establecer el impacto de las NEM en los resultados de las asignaturas del primer año de Educación Superior Técnica. Se usaron los datos de estudiantes de una institución profesional (IP) de educación técnica superior de Chile con una matrícula de aproximadamente 101.000 estudiantes, la cual es una de las mayores proveedoras de este tipo de formación en Chile. La muestra incluyó estudiantes que se matricularon en el año 2018. Los resultados mostraron que las NEM son una variable que tiene una alta correlación con notas de educación superior técnica y los modelos de regresión confirman una relación positiva y significativa. Sin embargo, la magnitud de los coeficientes puede ser indicativa de que las NEM no son un predictor fuerte del desempeño futuro en todas las carreras técnicas.

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                      2019


                      Revista electronica de didactica en educacion superior

                      Índices de segregación y aislamiento: una aplicación para la gestión de instituciones técnico profesionales

                      Autor: Ovalle, Claudia

                      El artículo presenta índices que permiten identificar la composición del cuerpo estudiantil  y que son útiles para visibilizar características socio demográficas de interés dentro de los programas técnicos de formación superior. Estos indicadores señalan si hay concentración de estudiantes con ciertas características (estudiantes de sexo femenino, estudiantes de bajos ingresos, estudiantes en condición de discapacidad, estudiantes migrantes, etc.) y la probabilidad de que los estudiantes estén en contacto con pares cuyas características son similares. Teniendo en cuenta estos indicadores los IPs (Institutos Profesionales) y los CFTs (Centros de Formación Técnica) pueden formular estrategias para focalizar estas minorías e intervenir para mejorar el rendimiento y la retención estudiantil en la educación superior técnica en Chile y en Latinoamérica. Este trabajo/artículo/investigación fue financiado por CONICYT-PIA-CIE160007.

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                      2018


                      Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis

                      Teacher effects on Chilean children’s achievement growth: A cross-classified multiple membership accelerated growth curve model

                      Autores: Ortega, Lorena; Malmberg, Lars; Sammons, Pam

                      We investigated teacher effects (magnitude, predictors, and cumulativeness) on primary students’ achievement trajectories in Chile, using multilevel cross-classified (accelerated) growth models (four overlapping cohorts, spanning Grades 3 to 8; n = 19,704 students, and 851 language and 812 mathematics teachers, in 156 schools). It was found that teacher effects on achievement growth are large, exceeding school effects. Also, the contribution of teachers to student achievement growth was found to accumulate over time. The study advances the field by exploring teacher effects in the context of an emerging economy, contributing further evidence on the properties of teacher effects on student achievement growth and demonstrating the combined use of accelerated longitudinal designs, growth curve approaches, and cross-classified and multiple membership models.

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                      2018


                      RMIE

                      Teacher effects on Chilean children’s achievement growth: A cross-classified multiple membership accelerated growth curve model

                      Autores: Treviño, Ernesto; Valenzuela, Juan P.; Villalobos, Cristóbal; Béjares, Consuelo; Wyman, Ignacio; Allende, Claudio

                      El objetivo de este artículo es describir la magnitud, los niveles de recurrencia y las características de las prácticas de segregación o agrupamiento por habilidad que ocurren en el sistema escolar chileno. Mediante análisis cuantitativos, se identificaron tres tipos de agrupamiento: a) al inicio del ciclo escolar, b) el reordenamiento de estudiantes y c) la distribución no aleatoria de alumnos nuevos. Los resultados sugieren que el agrupamiento por habilidad es más frecuente durante los últimos años de la educación obligatoria, especialmente en el primer y tercer grados de enseñanza media o secundaria alta. Asimismo, el agrupamiento por habilidad es más frecuente entre escuelas más vulnerables y de mayor tamaño.

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                      2018


                      School Effectiveness and School Improvement

                      School effects on Chilean children’s achievement growth in language and mathematics: An accelerated growth curve model

                      Autores: Ortega, Lorena; Malmberg, Lars; Sammons, Pam

                      This study investigates school effects on primary school students’ language and mathematics achievement trajectories in Chile, a context of particular interest given its large between-school variability in educational outcomes. The sample features an accelerated longitudinal design (3 time points, 4 cohorts) together spanning Grades 3 to 8 (n = 19,704 students in 156 schools). The magnitudes of school effects on students’ growth trajectories were found to be sizeable (generally larger than school effects in Western industrialised countries) and moderately consistent across school subjects. School composition effects on student achievement status were found for both school subjects. However, there was no evidence of composition effects on student achievement growth. The study provides new evidence on the size and nature of school effects in a developing country context based on state-of-the-art methods (i.e., accelerated longitudinal and growth curve models).

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                      2018


                      YOUNG

                      Forms of youth political participation and educational system: The role of school for 8th grade students in Chile

                      Autores: Treviño, Ernesto; Villalobos, Cristóbal; Béjares, Consuelo; Naranjo, Eloísa

                      This article analyses the role of school in different forms of expected political participation of 8th grade students in Chile. The massive students’ public demonstrations in Chile in the last ten years and the low rate of young voters’ turnout in elections have raised the question about young people’s preparation to participate as citizens in society. The results show that students’ civic and political background has the greatest influence in political participation, while the influence of school is mainly related to school governance and teacher practices. This discussion focused on the challenges that these results could mean for schools in Chile.

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                      2018


                      Psicología, Conocimiento y Sociedad

                      New subjectivities: a posthumanist and neo-materialist approach to the processes of encounter between children and psychostimulant medication

                      Autores: Sebastián Rojas Navarro

                      Este artículo propone un abordaje complejo y posthumanista a los diversos modos mediante los cuales niñas, niños y psicofármacos se co-afectan, determinando diversos devenires ontológicos a partir de esta interacción, en el nicho provisto por dos escuelas ubicadas en la zona oriente de Santiago de Chile. A partir de los resultados de una praxiografía que se extendió por ocho meses con niñas y niños de 9 y 10 años, se sostiene que es necesario pensar esta relación entre niñas, niños y psicofármacos desde coordenadas distintas a las provistas por las tesis de la medicalización. Esto, en tanto ellas reducen y achatan la noción de subjetividad a una posesión interna del individuo, y a una separación radical con el mundo, sostenida en una discutible idea de excepcionalismo humano. En respuesta a esta idea de subjetividad, se propone otra que permite un abordaje diferente al problema, en tanto es una subjetividad entendida en sus aspectos procesales, dinámicos, y últimamente sostenido en base a entramados con el mundo y con la medicación.

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                      2018


                      Children’s Literature in Education

                      Post-representational Cultural Memory for Children in Chile: From La Composición to Bear Story

                      Autores: García-González, Macarena

                      This article analyses texts intended for child audiences—picturebooks, a poetry book, and a film—that deal with the Chilean dictatorship (1973–1990). The memorialization practices within children’s media appear to be modelled on the difficulties of finding a national consensus regarding the events that transpired during the dictatorship and the appropriate ways of rendering them for children. Lydia Kokkola’s work on the Holocaust as a motif shows that gaps of information are left to be picked up by the adult reading alongside the child. Children’s literature that refers to state violence is described as elusive or circumventive. This article approaches these texts as complex materialities, suspending the paradigm of representation and interpretation. Inspired by Ulrich Gumbrecht’s call for a post-hermeneutic literary theory and by new materialistic approaches to the humanities and education, it is argued that these texts are more profitably read and experienced as artworks that escape pedagogic domestication. Accordingly, this article examines these selected texts as pieces that may smuggle meanings and intensities into educational settings if their complexity is not reduced by mediation practices.

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                      2018


                      Discourse Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education

                      Autonomy and the Ambiguity of Biological Rationalities: from Kant to Systems Theory to ADHD

                      Autores: Haye, Andrés; Matus, Claudia; Cottet, Pablo; Niño, Sebastián

                      We present a theoretical review of notions of autonomy to show how they organize discourses within social sciences around the biological reality of ideal self-regulating individuals. First, we reconstruct key meanings of autonomy in biological theory, focusing on theories of autopoietic systems and their connections to constructivist epistemologies in the social sciences. Second, we discuss developmental and neuropsychological theories of self-regulation, demonstrating conceptual links with biological and systems theory. Third, we discuss the implications for education, using the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as an example on how the construction of the biological, as the natural foundation of individuality, is intensified by the ideal integration of individuals as self-regulated agents. We argue that autonomy, theoretically rooted in modern philosophy, and expanded through system theory to biological and social sciences, has become a biopolitical project contributing to contemporary biological rationalities that produce the educated subject.

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                      2018


                      Revista de Crítica Literaria Latinoamericana

                      Narrating Dictatorship for Childhood. Images that Smuggle Meanings.

                      Autores: García-González, Macarena

                      Los medios para la infancia presentan un campo privilegiado para explorar la reproducción de consensos e imaginarios sociales. En este artículo, nos aproximamos a cuatro obras recomendadas por la crítica especializada: los libro-álbumes La composición, Camino a casa y Un diamante en el fondo de la tierra y el cortometraje “Bear Story”. En estos textos, lo verbal y lo visual se imbrican para hacer referencias a la violencia política en Latinoamérica. Asistida por teorías de semiótica visual —y por la categoría de modalidad de la imagen introducida por Gunther Kress y Theo van Leeuwen— analizo cómo estos textos narran la dictadura reproduciendo así límites de una memoria colectiva sobre el pasado que elude la narración de la violencia. El análisis ideológico de estos textos es complementado con algunas reflexiones elaboradas sobre respuestas lectoras de profesores de educación básica así como de niños y niñas obtenidas en talleres de lectura realizados en Santiago de Chile.

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                      2018


                      Educational Review

                      The private in the privatisation of schools: the case of Chile

                      Autores: Carrasco, Alejandro; Gunter, HM.

                      Privatisation of public services education is a key feature of the Global Education Reform Movement (GERM), where policy convictions, ideas, and strategies are integral to the “spreading and mutating” of reforms. While there are important projects that seek to describe and explain major changes to restructuring, ownership and funding, what has not been given sufficient attention is the role of the private in privatisation. By private, we mean the decisions and choices regarding educational services of (a) individuals and families and (b) school providers, and how issues that have traditionally been in the public domain (e.g. through government systems, on the agendas of local community/municipal schools) are no longer there (e.g. government systems have been dismantled and replaced with new providers, and local community/municipal schools either no longer exist or provide “safety nets” for those who fail in the market). What we intend focusing on is depoliticised privatism, where the role of the private in the supply and demand for school places illuminates a shift in the identification and addressing of educational matters from the politicised public to the depoliticised private domain. We report specifically on intellectual and empirical work regarding how supply and demand works in the provision of education services in Chile, particularly by looking at how those who own and work in schools view current reforms.

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                      2018


                      Revista Venezolana de Gerencia

                      Liderazgo, cultura académica y calidad de las universidades: aproximación conceptual y relaciones

                      Autores: Pedraja-Rejas, Liliana; Araneda-Guirriman, Carmen; Bernasconi, Andrés; Viancos, Patricio

                      La calidad de la educación superior es un determinante en las oportunidades de desarrollo de las naciones en la sociedad del conocimiento. Por lo tanto, resulta vital avanzar en descubrir cuáles factores pueden incidir en la calidad de las entidades de este sector, y de esta forma contribuir al mejoramiento de ellas y al progreso de los países. Este trabajo se ha planteado como propósito central analizar las teorías sobre estilos de liderazgo, cultura académica y calidad institucional de las universidades, con el fin de estructurar un modelo integrador para el liderazgo universitario. Para alcanzar esta finalidad se recurre a fuentes secundarias (principalmente artículos en revistas indexadas) cuyo análisis e integración posibilita la construcción de una teoría de rango medio o modelo explicativo que relacione estas dimensiones. Como resultado de la investigación, se estructura un modelo de liderazgo universitario en el que se precisan relaciones entre estilos de liderazgo, cultura académica y calidad institucional. Se evidencia un probable vínculo entre los estilos de liderazgo y los tipos de cultura que prevalecen en las instituciones de educación superior, encontrando a partir de la metodología empleada, una asociación de naturaleza teórica no observada en la revisión conceptual llevada a cabo.

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                      2018


                      The Urban Review

                      White Middle‐Class Families and Sociocultural Diversity in Schools: A Literature Review.

                      Autores: Hernández, Macarena

                      School choice parental practices have been extensively researched worldwide. Recently, an emergent line of studies has focused on the case of mostly white middle-class parents, who, in contrast to the dominant trend identified by sociological research, choose or are willing to choose a socially, racially and/or ethnically diverse school for their children. The purpose of this article is to review the literature published between 2000 and 2017 on this nascent field, exploring the characteristics of families’ ‘against the grain’ choice processes, the parental practices deployed for managing school diversity, and their consequences for intra-school integration. Results highlight (a) the tensions underlying parental choices for diversity, (b) the multiple individual and collective practices that families implement to confront sociocultural school mix, and (c) the implications for the emergence of social and racial/ethnic intra-school segregation and power dynamics within communities. Based on the findings presented, the article discusses suggestions for further research.

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